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Shanti Jayasekera, PhD

Analog television.

The beginning of the birth of television and its development was a period of analog television. Countries, most advanced in technical areas, which are the USA, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Canada broadcast in a modern standard, NTSC 3.58, which gives 29.97 frames per second. The number of vertical lines is reduced from 576 to 480. If you bring the 29.97 frame / sec up to 30 frames / sec, it turns the other (less common) standard, which is not compatible with NTSC.

In Eastern Europe countries, in France and Russia, television broadcasts in a Sekam standard, which provides only 25 frames per second with interlaced image it is slightly smaller than the NTSC standard / Number of points in this format, 720 × 576 (horizontal and vertical respectively).

Other countries broadcast in various versions of PAL standard, which differ from Sekam by only the way of color coding.

Version of the PAL standard, once again distinguished artificially, in order for television in one country does not interfere with television of another country.

With the development of techniques a list of disadvantages of analog TV was revealed, limiting its further development.

Among the reasons, limiting the development of TV picture’s quality, a weak signal noise immunity of analog signal should be named.

The need to improve the quality of television programs led to the emergence of a fundamentally new way – a digital one. Further improvement of television picture goes in the direction of widespread introduction of digital methods of signal processing, management and control of its work.

Digital TV.

Among the most significant advantages of digital method of data transmission is a possibility of obtaining high-quality television picture through practical absence of waveform distortion, and thereby, improvement of the noise immunity. The exchange of television programs between countries with different television standards is simplified.

Having indisputable advantages over analog TV, digital TV required a completely new technical means, and this complicates the transition from analog to digital TV. Even today there is a phased, gradual replacement of analog systems to digital ones.

The first phase – a change of some blocks of analog TV-sets by digital devices improves image quality.

Introduction of digital devices at this stage has practically no effect on a functional scheme – in the input and output of a digital device is an analog signal.

At this stage, all the studio equipment is transferred to a digital signal, which processing and storage, within the telecentre is implemented by digital means.

In the output of the telecentre a television signal is converted into an analog form and is passed through normal paths of communication.

The second phase of the development of digital television – creating a hybrid analog-digital TV systems with parameters, different from those in conventional television standards. We can define two main changes in the standard television: the transition from the simultaneous transmission of the luminance and color difference signals to a serial transfer and an increase of the number of lines per frame and the picture elements in a line.

The implementation of the second direction is connected with the need to compress the spectrum of TV signals to enable their transmission through the communication paths with an acceptable frequency band.

An example of such hybrid TV systems may be a Japanese system of television of high-definition MUSE and European systems of MAC family.

In transmitting and receiving parts of these systems the signals are transmitted in an analog form.

The MUSE and HD-MAC systems have ratio of 16:9, the number of lines in the frame is 1125 × 1250, frame frequency of 30 and 25 Hz respectively.

The third stage is characterized by the creation of fully digital television stations. However, the output signal from the telecentre remains an analog one.

The fourth stage is the final one, and is characterized by the creation of fully digital receivers.

Digital TV-sets are to become devices to allow feedback from the video-information sources: information services, libraries, shopping centers. The need to improve quality has led to the need for high-definition television systems creation.

HDTV – High Definition Television – a new television standard, transmitting and reproducing the image, which quality is a little bit different or the same in comparison with from the original. A normal TV-set “gives” resolution (i. e., the density of points) of 720-480, or 345 600 pixels.

In the HDTV format a resolution of 1920 × 1080, i. e. more than 2 million pixels, is achieved. Naturally, the higher density of points is reached, the better is the image quality.

An interlaced frame enhances the effect of image clarity, when frames are like partially overlapped on each other.

Currently, some channels of satellite TV broadcast images in HD format. And is close the time, when most of the channels will be broadcast in HD format.

There are two types of HD TV receivers. They are HDTV Upgradeable and HDTV Built-in.

An Upgradeable TV model allows you to watch programs in HD format only through the HDTV receiver with compulsory connection to company service – a supplier of television programs.

A Built-in TV HD model with the receiver already has a built-in receiver that allows you to take through an ordinary indoor antenna programs, broadcasted currently on usual free channels. In HD format these channels broadcast not all programs, but only some of them.

All HD TVs have a PiP (Picture-in-Picture) – a device that allows you to view simultaneously two or more channels.

Therefore, buying an HDTV TV-set with Built-in receiver and having a “dish” with an HDTV receiver, you can watch in HD format both satellite TV programs and programs of VHF (free) channels.

The so-called plasma TVs are currently available. Unlike traditional TV-sets, they have a thickness of a picture and can be hung on a wall. These TVs are a little bit more expensive than kinescoped and searchlight TV-sets, but in HDTV format we receive high-quality images on a plasma TV.

Having already an HD TV and purchasing a DVD-player one should be aware that this DVD-player should be able to play in the Progressive scan format, which provides to get a resolution of 1280 × 1080 = 1.382400 pixels, which is high and close to HD.

Such disks are called HDCD.

One DVD holds 2-4 hours of video stream in an Mpeg 2 format with a frame size of 720 × 576 for PAL and 720 × 480 for NTSC and a 6-channel audio with quality kbit / s per channel (not enough). The format of HD provides the rate of video stream of Mpeg 2 at a rate Mbit / s, which is 3 times larger than that of DVD. Such a large carrier of information does not exist yet. But the emergence of a new laser Blue-Ray discs, will hold 24 GB. HD video recorders began to appear. But failing videotapes with HD format recordings such video recorders can only be used to record HD programs.

All this allows to assert that the future is for HDTV television.

3D TV.

Digital TV of HD format allows not only to improve quality, but also add a third dimension of the image, and to the abbreviation TV an acronym 3D.

The introduction of a new broadcasting format is a big infrastructure project, to be solved at the state level.

The sequence of the process of TV broadcast: stereoscopic photography→video compression→broadcast→reception and decoration→3D display. The last step – 3D display. The term “3D” is used to indicate the full range of volumetric display technologies. Video material, containing two channels (one for left and another one for right eye) is also called stereoscopic. To view this video a viewer must wear special glasses.

Multi-level 3D video contains more channels. Eight-nine of these channels allow using show technologies, not requiring the usage of glasses for viewing.

Multi-level video allows examining can objects from different angles. At present, a wide usage got 3D TVs and displays, using 3D glasses for viewing 3D videos.

These glasses can be of 2 types: sunglasses of a curtain type and sunglasses of passive polarization.

Sunglasses of a curtain type change the transparency of its glasses synchronously with the displaying frames on the screen, destined for the left and right eye.

Such glasses are also called glasses with active polarization.

Passive polarization glasses. At the same time frames are shown to the right and left eye in interlaced format on the screen.

The advantage of passive polarization in complete absence of flicker and eye strain.

3D Channels broadcast. At present, three ways of 3D broadcast channels are spread. The first way – to send two channels of video with decrease of horizontal resolution.

The second way – broadcasting channels for left and right eye by individual channels.

The third way – an increase of frame rate.

In this case in the flow instead of 25 frames per second are transmitted 50 frames. 25 Frames to left and 25 frames to right eye are alternating in the video stream.

In the first and the second case the video stream can be watched on a regular TV.

In the third case, the video broadcast can not be watched on a regular TV.

Despite the wide dissemination of 3D TV-sets with glasses with this way of show has a significant drawback – the need to wear glasses. It’s hard for people, using glasses for vision correction.

However, there are 3D displays that allow displaying video without glasses.

The greatest development got a technology that uses an optical lens raster to create a 3D effect.

The usual image is with usage of lens raster, the original video must contain several channels, taken from the horizontal displacement (typically 8-9 pc.). Such a set of video streams allows to create in front of a screen a large number of zones of stereo vision, where the viewer can see a volume image without glasses, and even to look behind the foreground object.

None of the existing methods of 3D display is without drawbacks. Used in the broadcast 3D format, where the frames for the left and right eye are mounted in one video frame of 1920 × 1080 (side-by-side) involves reducing the width of each frame twice. This leads to a decrease of image quality. This drawback can be eliminated by using a higher-resolution display.

Internet TV (or online-TV) system, based on two-way digital transmission of a television signal via the Internet connection through a broadband connection.

At present, the Internet TV gets huge scales.

This is a wide range of application possibilities of television continent, which until recently were almost unenforceable on traditional television.

The Internet television system allows to control the subscription package of each user, to broadcast channels in MPEG-2 and MPEG-4, protection of TV content at any level, the search for past TV programs and pause function for a television channel in real time. The high interest to online television is explained by a number of reasons: it is user’s convenience, the minimum of advertising and a program you need can be downloaded immediately after viewing.

IP-TV is considered to be digital technology of multi-program broadcasting in IP- network with a packet video data transmission in IP-protocol (Internet Protokol).

The prefix =IP= appeared in radio broadcasting, telephony, and now in television.

Despite the fact that both IPTV, and Internet TV provides video, based on IP, there are some differences among them. For example, Internet TV is distributed over the Internet, thus ensuring free access to the content, while the IPTV service is delivered through closed networks, in which an access to content is allowed to subscribers of a service.

The key difference is that Internet TV offers an access to content from any location of connection to the Internet, and IPTV operator restricts by the limits of operator’s medium, which a set of unique features and high quality content are contained. An IPTV technology allows you to watch TV programs and at a convenient time for the viewer.

The basic service is a multi-program retransmission of television channels, providing the subscriber a defined set of channels, which he pays a monthly fee for.

The list of additional services, available to the subscriber of IPTV service, will directly depend on the selected by the subscriber TV package.

Smart TV – is a new trend in integration of the Internet in modern TVs and digital TV receivers as well as in technological symbiosis between computers and TVs.

Smart TV – a TV-set with a built-in Internet access or a TV receiver, which multiplies the capabilities of a modern TV-set.

Smart TV is a computer system, integrated into the TV-set, and also allows installation of additional offers and services.

The concept of Smart TV is at early stage, but is constantly supplemented with software such as Google TV.

Except a full Internet access, Smart TV TV-sets make connection between household electronics and “smart devices” closer. So Smart TV can be connected to not only home computers, but also smart phones, tablet PC, cameras and other devices with support of industry specification.

According to the latest forecast of analytical company Display Search, the number of television sets, equipped with an access to the Internet by 2015 will reach 500 million – about 47%.

Further development of the television is directly related to the improvement of technological breakthroughs in digital television.

This increase in the transmitted video stream over long distances, perfection of services and improvement of picture quality of TV-sets with computer functions.


  1. R. Brice, Handbook of digital television.
  2. A. Smirnov, Fundamentals of Digital Television, 2001.
  3. Television (edited by Jakoniya).
  4. V. V. Egorov, Television, “Aspect-press”, 2006.


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Shanti Jayasekera, PhD

The information society – is a theoretical concept of postindustrial society, the historical phase of possible evolution of civilization, in which information and knowledge are multiplied in a single information space.

The main product of the information society’s manufacture is information and knowledge.

One part of this process is increasing society computerization with usage of

T e l e v i s i o n.

Regular television broadcasts began almost simultaneously in three regions: in the United States in 1944, in France – in 1944. In England – in 1946 and in the Soviet Union – in 1945.

In other countries the emergence and development of television has already happened in the ’50s. Accordingly, three main models of social and economic organization of television were formed – an American, Western European and Soviet one.

In each of those models are solved key issues: who owns the television, who finances it, and whose interests it represents.

It is also important who controls it and how, what the relationship between the television and society, the television and culture, the television and the power.

A classical country of the commercial television is the USA.

All television in the United States is privately owned. Therefore, it obeys the laws of the market principle of competition, which forces broadcasters to be in constant search of new forms of television to keep viewers at their channel.

Competition dictates the orientation on the American television audience’s interest, high mobility, a focus on rapid development.

This orientation is defined in the programs of the most popular types of sights: the information and entertainment programs.

The entertainment programs of various genres are up to 70% of air time: these are movies, TV shows, games, shows, quiz and music programs.

Since the orientation on mass and accessibility requires a certain standard and “averaging” them to the level of the most common type of consumption – their intellectual and artistic value, is, as a rule, very low, but a professional level of these television programs is quite high.

In an American model of commercial television cultural and educational functions of television are in conflict with commercial objectives and are brought to the victim by them.

The state television is opposite to a commercial model.

This model of the TV has appeared during the spread of television in Western Europe. Such model is called in a different way: both the public and state, and public law and public.

In the public television various protective mechanisms are against market element and competitive activity, and most important – from the diktat of advertisers, orientated at tastes of averaged majority, which allows manufacturers to create cultural and educational programs, focusing on humanistic, universal values.

The third model of the television organization developed in the Soviet Union and was copied in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. This was the same the state television, but the principles of construction were completely different.

This model is also called authoritarian. It is characterized by the state budget financing, strict ideological control and complete state monopoly on television.

The change in socio-political climate, development of new broadcasting opportunities – lead to the transformation of all three models: the commercial, public and state-monopolistic.

The changes in each of them had different reasons.

Commercial television in the United States, orientated on the mass audience, led to the individualization of demand. A lot of programs and channels are possible. This was facilitated by the development of satellite television and cable networks. Entertainment -, sport -, news -, movie -, baby -, family-TV channels constitute a large share of the USA television broadcast.

For the opportunity to watch programs on interests television viewers have to pay, by subscribing to one or another interest channel.

Such approach to television broadcasting led to the emergence of a new model –a marketing one, in which the determinant becomes a “minority”, and success depends on the amount of money, collected from the audience.

In the early ’80s American commercial television competes with European social and public broadcasters. A restructing of the European model of television in the direction of commercialization and deregulation is done, and social and governmental channels, not being able to compete with the commercial, had to resort to advertising as an additional source of funding.

Today, almost all European public channels (except BBC) use advertising. Thus, the commercialization of European television transformed the European model of public and state television in a new “hybrid” model, in which both public and private (pay) TV develop and compete with each other,.

A mixed model dominates on all the post-Soviet space.

This model, in spite of Americanization of television programs, is the most fruitful creatively. Competition between commercial and public-private TV enhances the dignity of each of these broadcasting models and aligns their shortcomings.

Television, in its technical capabilities, is far superior to other media. Consequently, it leads in the daily consumption of the information with the prevailing break-away from other channels – 97%.

The possibilities of radio and cinema were the basis for the specificity of the television. To transmit television signals via radio waves over long distances. It is a possibility of the radio. A sound and video on the TV screen (still picture) – are the possibilities of cinema.

On television can be organized operational programs from the place of events, which is an important advantage over the radio. It creates a “presence effect”, that provides stronger connections with the audience.

A significant place in the structure of television programs is occupied by television programs, recorded on tape. But the unity of the audiovisual media creates the same opportunities for perception of the audience, that the programs from the scene do.

If we consider the television audience as a collection of TV viewers in the specified limits, then you need to take into account the parameters of three kinds: social, spatial and demographic.

In any TV-viewers there is something, that unites the audience – a common language, culture, lifestyle, career interests, etc. If we consider individuals in the role of a TV viewer, then we must distinguish three things: the fact of turning on the TV, the fact of television viewing and the fact of using a particular program on a particular channel.

While viewing, a person can change the motivation and move on to watching other channels. This suggests that the TV audience – is  a  d y n a m i c  s y s t e m, in which continuous changes happen on a micro-level with a high speed.

A significant number of the information sections is calculated once for all – on an average representative of the TV audience.

Information programs, entertaining and educational television are also aimed at the widest possible audience. In order to attract different groups of the audience to view the programs you can go on a “honeycomb structure” principle.

Potential audience of a TV channel can be considered all population, living in the zone of consistent reception of a television signal.

Changing of the TV audience is realized by methods of population survey in tote or particular groups in order to obtain both factual information, and the subjectivity of a program or a channel.

TV programs and program cycles has its audience. Mass programs must account on all groups of the audience. However, specialized audience has also the right to the special attention of some publication or program.

A specific analysis of attitude of the audience to the media can be examined through the line of selection of this information:

  1. The choice of information sources on central or local channels;
  2. The choice of particular programs on these channels;
  3. Evaluation of scanned material;
  4. The consequence of the information in the minds and behavior of information consumer.

It is believed, that the main functions and tasks of television are:

– Information (informing the population about events in the country and the world);

– Cultural and educational (education, dissemination of culture, promotion of knowledge);

– Entertaining (entertainment, recreation, emotional discharge);

– Educational (training of civilian attitudes and beliefs);

– Social integration and political mobilization (social cohesion, political activity).

All these tasks TV performs in every society, and in people’s consciousness of the modern society the main tasks of television stay: information, education and training of the population. The entertaining function is an additional one, but not the basic one.


  1. The ABC of television. V. A. Sarukhanov, Moscow, Aspect Press, 2009.
  2. Television and us. V. Sappak, Moscow, “Art”, 2010.
  3. The role and place of television in the modern media scene. The Journal of SGKEU, 2010 № 2.