During recent decades akmeology problems have been the subject of research in different fields of science. This facilitates and stimulates the development of different scientific directions, including linguvoakmeology.
Akmeolodgy (greek. “akme” - the point) is a science investigating the objective laws and factors which promote or create obstacles to the self-realization of creative potentials of a person being on his or her way to the achievements of higher degree.
Prof. Doubrovina L. I., PhD, Grand PhD
LINGUOAKMEOLOGY AS FUNDAMENTALLY-APPLIED BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE
The basis of linguoakmeology is the integration of such sciences as linguistics, akmeology, psychology, didactics.
Linguoakmeology deals with the development of language and speech in the educational process, witcreative activities of teachers and their learners.
The key-concept of linguoakmeolodgy is the language as a creator.
The subject of linguoakmeology is to investigate natural links, objective laws between the levels of productivity of teachers and learners on the one hand and the factors, contributive or inhibitive to self-realization of their potentials in the linguistic educational process on the other hand.
From the point of view of linguoakmeology, linguistic and speech development is one of the processes of achieving the proficiency level of acquiring language knowledge , the language itself (native or foreign) being a means of creative activity, an objective reality to be mastered.
Linguoakmeology studies self-development of linguistic and speech creative activities, factors and objective laws governing self-perfection as well as language and speech self-correction in order to reach “akme”, i.e. the highest point in the development of speech and language.
In the context of the interaction philosophy linguoakmeology is the interaction of linguistics and akmeology, linguistic education and akmeological development of language and speech.
Language study is the interaction of acquisition knowledge and application of this knowledge in speech by the learners and the development is the interaction of formation of the spiritual individual qualities of learners and self realization of the acquired qualities in their own life.
In the linguoakmeological process there is the interaction of the “author system” of the teacher`s activities with its realization in the teaching process on the one hand and the interaction of the “author system” of learner`s activities with its realization while studying language on the other hand.
Prof. Brusser A.M, PhD, Grand PhD
AKMETECHNOLOGIES OF STAGE SPEECH TRAINING OF TEACHERS WOULD
We present here training experience of the future stage speech teachers at Boris Schukin Theatrical Institute stage speech department.
The didactic materials include a course book, compiled for specifically established and implemented stage speech training for undergraduates, as well as the course called «Akmeology of stage speech teaching».
The author presents the outline of all the stages specialists-would be come through during the educational process. The process includes contemplative and individual practices, as well as studying of “Akmeology of stage speech teaching” training course through lectures and seminars.
This system is utterly effective and certified.
Prof. Green Kh.V.
PAUSES IN ATTORNEYS’ PROFESSIONAL CREATIVE SPEECH
As applied to real life work, pauses are seen as both a part of the phonetical aspect of speech and as a means of emphasis in attorneys’ speeches in court. Special attention is paid to finding akmeological factors in the spoken language and to the studies of the intonation as a “microakme” of the professional speech in court, in which pauses are seen as an akmeological product of speech.
It is the productivity and the functional meaning of pauses in the presentation of the speaker that represents an akmeological factor in the language development. THE correct use of pauses—in particular pragmatic and emphatic pauses—makes the presentation of the speaker more productive and of a higher quality. “Microakme”-type factors in the creative professional speech of attorneys were discovered on the basis of studies of pragmatic and emphatic pauses. This thesis describes the high-quality creative speech from the point of Linguistic Akmeology. Reaching the point of “akme” in spontaneous speech is a creative process, when the speaker is able to achieve perfection in his/her presentation. Along with syntactic and hesitational pauses, attention is paid to the emphatic pauses, the correct use of which in professional speech allows a speaker to apply his/her skills and to achieve the “akme” of a professional speech, thus producing a phonetical product that can be considered as “akmeproduct”. On the basis of auditory analysis, akmeological and intonational factors in the professional speech of attorneys are revealed.
Prof. Goubina G. B., PhD, Grand PhD
THE PHONETIC FACTORS OF LECTURERS LANGUAGE AND SPEECH AKMEDEVELOPMENT
The phonetic aspect of human speech, that is the phonetic product of this activity is oral monological speech is considered in this paper.
The research involves the borderlines of linguoakmeology, akmeology, linguistics and psychology. The aim of the research is to reveal the phonetic factors of speech akmeological development of grown-ups.
The research tasks are:
a) to determine the criteria of oral scientific monolog from the point of view of pause significants;
b) to determine the functional meaning of pauses for the sake of semantic perception of speech;
c) to carry out a comparative analysis of pause functioning in 2 types of speech activity: in spontaneous speech and in reading.
The results of this reseach are akmeological phonetic factors of speech development of grown-ups, namely. There is a special kind of pauses in oral scientific speech which has an emphasis function, helping the speaker to emphasize the most important key «points» in the sentence, reflecting the didactic character of this kind of speech activity.
These emphasizing (or stress) pauses are used in speech together with another procodic means of semantic stress: melodics, intensity and duration.
Prof. Krasnoperova I.A., PhD
NARRATIVES AS “MICROAKME” OF ORAL SPEECH DEVELOPMENT
From the point of view of linguoakmeology, language is a means of creative speech activity of a person. In connection with this the research of oral spontaneous monologues is of great interest for us.
Since language is collective cultural experience’s archive of certain community of people we suppose that this experience is expressed not only in fixed words’ meanings and set phrases, in axiological associations and in standards of behavior reproducible in speech but also in decisional texts, recurrent cognitive structures, in interpretation schemes defining the belonging of people to the given culture. The narrative discourses or narratives play special role in communication of “collective” or “cultural unconscious” form one generation to the other because of their unique status in the process of people’s languaging – both in ontogenesis and in phylogenesis.
Discourse is the object of linguistic study and it allows the multiple-aspect consideration: there are grammatical, semantic, pragmatic, cognitive or psycholinguistic, sociocultural approaches. Being the language phenomenon discourse/text is characterized by set of constitutive features, structure and consistency; the set of text categories and structural bonds can be rather universal for all text types but their filling is various in different types of texts.
The ideas of Russian formalists, European structuralism and semiotics, anthropology, study of literature, cognitive linguistics, communication and sociology theories are restrictedly integrated in the tideway of modern discourse theories approaches. The processes of texts’ production, understanding and functioning are the objects of the discourse thinking study. The main subject of the study is the discourse structure, its originality carries the expression of the language personality’s psychological and sociocultural aspect (both individual and collective). Mainly homogeneous in genre relations products of speech – verbal spontaneous monological stories – are the study objects of this work.
As part of the study obvious popularity of narrative structures described by Propp has been defined in different spheres of modern folklore and culture in whole: the mass literature replicates them shamelessly in best-seller genre.
The foregoing convinces of the existence of some underlying or invariant structural schemes of fairy (and not only!) tales which allow to identify, make and restore easily these texts. Translating all this in to the cognitive science language in fact we postulate special relations of person psychics and this type of texts if for no other reason than they are interpreted, remembered and reproduced easier.
The fragment of comparative structural analysis of the folklore texts (Russian folk fairy tales) and the script text of “Star wars” movie which is the classics of the modern mass cinema was shown for the hypothesis verification in the work; this analysis consisted in the attempt to point out the functions in modern movie script and answer the question whether it is made according to the same canons as a fairy tale. It is obvious that the similar analysis can be demonstrated using other narratives including mass culture texts like best-sellers and movies.
The plot in political discourse is veiled, it is present latently in journalistic texts clearly appearing on the structure surface, for example in pre-election biographic sketches, but every analytical and propaganda article is based on plot structure (often more than one – competitive versions of social reality are used).
The results of two psycholinguistic experiments, connected with the narratives creation, their mnemonic characteristics and semantic transformations when retelling were analysed for the verification of the abovementioned hypothesis.
The content of the talk is of better undestanding if it contains narratives. Therefore, it might be stated that the work with narratives influences oral speech akmedevelopment.
Prof. Larionova N.G., PhD
TRANSLATION OF THECNICAL TEXT AS A MEANS OF PCIENTIFIC SPEECH STYLE AKMEDEVELOPMENT
The differences in scientific speech styles cause certain difficulties for translation. Intensive developments leading to advancement of scientific and technical thinking are associated with the most important achievement of the human social evolution – formation of language, which gives infinite possibilities to express, exchange, and understand new thoughts for further progress in technical and cultural development. Translation, an essential ingredient of this exchange process, is our main focus of research as we have investigated some of the peculiarities in translating scientific-technical terms in both languages.
The main purpose of scientific-technical texts is to serve as an informative function and be stylistically neutral, but it is important to realize that such texts have some peculiarities that a translator should know. Firstly, the existence of a great number of terms is very typical of scientific-technical texts. Consequently, the principal difficulty in the translation of such terms is how and where they are used in different fields of science. Secondly, the field-specific utilization of extensive usage of abbreviations can only be understood from the context. Naturally, the more familiarity and knowledge with the subject domain of text we’ll have a better chance of correct translation.
This research indicates that there are more grammatical differences than lexical ones in scientific-technical texts. For example, the use of “passive voice” is very common for technical texts and research and it indicates 16 times more in technical texts than in fiction. The main reason for this case is the fact that the emphasis of the text is more on the description of actions. Another distinguishing feature is the extensive usage of modal verbs. The main difficulty in translation of such structures lies in the existing of different modality scales in English and Russian. Furthermore, the translation of headlines can also cause difficulty in translation because of their elliptical structures, missing auxiliary verbs and conjunctions. Hence, the right translation of a headline can only be achieved after knowing familiarity with the subject and understanding the context.
In a conclusion, we point out one should pay special attention to some of the peculiarities in both English and Russian languages to achieve correct translation. My research identifies such differences and provides guidelines for the appropriate translation with a focus on scientific and technical texts. Primarily, one must understand the differences of English and Russian languages and be comfortably familiar with the stylistic traditions used in scientific-technical literature. It is also necessary to have knowledge in the field of science which materials are translated. Besides, the use of context is an essential ingredient to reveal the true meaning of attributive and syntactical structures.
The correct translation of a scientific text provides for scientific speech style akmedevelopment.
Prof. Neborskaya V. V.
ARGUMENTATION AS A LANGUAGE AND SPEECH AKMERESULT (PRODUCT)
The process of communication should be investigaled by means of studying one’s language personality, possessing an individual set of language and communicative means, a cognitive instrument, personal interest and so on.
The theory of personality in linguistic includes the language pars that mainly belongs to the personality which has certain place in communication and certain principals for argumentation. Speech strategies and tactics become the main meaningful acts of a certain personality. But there is a nonreflexive side of the discourse which is closely connected with the inside person’s predilection for sign manifestation of believes, aims and motives.
Communication is a semiotic transaction directed to the reconstruction of the recipient’s meaning. Transaction means a periodical role change of communication participants. Their strategies, tactics, verbal manifestation of meanings also vary. Interaction is described as an instance of transaction where there is no emphasis on changing the character of communication. The term «interaction» can be applied to any act of argumentation.
The mainframe concept for argumentative language personality is the concept of a personality in which there are five styles of reasoning: ”idealist”, “realist”, “pragmatic”, “synthesis circuit”, and “analyst”.
The results of the research showed that “idealist” first of all paid attention to the emotional part of the situation; “realist” took into account the fact itself; “pragmatic” emphasised the action from beginning to end; “synthesis” circuit noticed the situation’s imperfection; “analyst” treated the situation from the point of some system or concept. In other words in the theory of reasoning styles underlies the part which the subject pays attention to while getting information.
Argumentation first of all prism is a certain filter with the help of which the person senses the information form the argumentation. The structure of such prism is permanent and solid with its elements. It’s explained by a number of sign communication recipient’s systems that are projected at verbal-argumentative manifestation level. Every person has his own argumentation prism and works with the information in his own way as well as organizes his verbal communication.
Argumentation motive is a motive stimulating the recipient to discourse or just analyze the received information. Each reasoning style has his own argumentation motive which influences the choice of various word-combination and phrases and whole communication on this whole as well.
Personification is recipient’s self-identification with a suggested verbal situation. From the functional point of view personification maintains supplied by argumentation prism interrelation between recipient’s experience and its verbal expression. Personification or its absence influences the choice of sentences that is maide by a person in argumentation. The appearance and further realization of personification is stipulated by the reasoning style because this style is connected with a verbal and written representation of the language personality.
Coming to the conclusion, it should be mentioned that every person as a language personality is a complex structure with its sign features. Language is something universal and stereotyped but a language personality is unique and has certain (for each type) morphological, semantic, grammar and other linguistic characteristics. That’s the reason for people’s division into reasoning styles which are revealed in argumentation and verbalization in a direct way.
This research can’t cover all the problems connected with the language features of recipients’ reaction in argumentation and interrelation of psychological features with linguistic ones. But it made a significant attempt to draw attention to this interrelation, to show its nature, to surface its features, to underline the importance of this problem and the necessity of its further comprehensive analysis.
A language personality is unique. It possesses its own peculiarities at morphological, semantic, grammar levels. In correspondence with this we have discussed language and speech “microakme” in argumentative communication.
Prof. Ossovskaya M.P.
THE CORRECT PRONUNCIATION AS A “MICROAKME” IN COMMUNICATION
The problems of developing practical talking skills, and the study of effective speech influence are discussed here.
We put a special focus on the clarity of the language phonation.
We put together and systemize special dialectical features attached to different categories of students: the equivalent of vowels, vowel`s reduction, adhesion of vowels, “yakonie”, “T”, “D”, the absence of sonance assimilation – voicelessness and devocalization at the end of the word, fricative “G”, palatalized “Sh”, “Zh”, pretonic “A” after “Ch”, “SHCH” as “A”, sound “I” as “Ы” ajoint the words after the hard consonant.
All these peculiarities are described in our course called “The practical orthoepy”.
Akmetechnologies were certified and show a positive result when applied to both students of theatre institutes, radio-and TV-reporters, trainees in professional development institutes, radio- and TV- professionals and also to the people of various jobs whose professional experience is somehow connected with using live speech on daily basis.
Prof. Shishkina R.G.PhD, Grand PhD
THE STUDY OF THE CATEGORY OF“DESIRABILITY” AS A MEANS OF THE LANGUAGE STUDYING COMPETENCE AKMEDEVELOPMENT
Scientists tell the difference between ontological and logical modalities. Ontological modality is defined as the ways things exist, while logical modality (or modality of judgment) is connected with such categories as “possibility” and “necessity”.
In modern researches modality has also to deal with such phenomena as ”verily” / “falsely”.
Logical researches don’t contain deep analysis of “desirability” category. For example formal logic doesn’t work with modal operators like “demand”; “ask”; “wish”.
Modern linguistic researches prove that a sentence is made up of sentential and modal parts.
Linguistics used to be compared to grammar, so it should be pointed out that the best part of linguistic researches represent deep analysis of word forms and word meanings. Consequently, there are lots of linguistic researches based on the “mood” category. Such narrow views do not correspond to the modern linguistics with its complication and multilateral connections.
Thus E. Parret developed a multilevel modality system: affirmation (zero modus); judgment (modus of necessity / modus of impossibility); judgment (modus of possibility / modus of fortuity).
In the given article we define modus as a frame of an utterance related to its’ sentential part. Modus is to convert complicated semantic structures into a particular utterance.
The most common analysis in descriptive work treats modality as an expression of the speaker’s attitude towards the prejacent proposition, rather than giving rise to a complex proposition with its own distinct content. The prevalence of this conception can perhaps be traced back to the influence of Immanuel Kant, who wrote in his Critique of Pure Reason that “the modality of judgments is a very special function thereof, which has the distinguishing feature that it does not contribute to the content of the judgment”.
This idea seems to have influenced both practicing linguists and a subset of logicians, including Gottlob Frege, who wrote in his Begriffsschrift that “by saying that a proposition is necessary I give a hint about the grounds for my judgment. But, since this does not affect the conceptual content of the judgement, the form of the apodictic judgement has no significance for us”
So, on the onehand, the presented above information permits to include modality into the sphere of active cognitive-communicative activity of the subject. On the other hand, the given above ideas may de looked upon as a means of linguistic competence akmedevelopment of teachers and students of linguistics.
THE Interactive TECHNOLOGIES OF FOREIGN language PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION AKMEDEVELOPMENT
In correspondence with the demands deolared in reference to the professional language education concerning the applied active teaching technologies we study foreign language communication development as an element of professional activity to be. A wide variety of foreign language teaching methods developed in the 20th century. This fact strongly influenced the process of language teaching and learning. Teachers choose the method that seems to them the most convenient and appropriate. However, it is a quite subjective and individual process. Basic teaching methods can be classified into the following categories:
· structural methods: the grammar-translation and the audio-lingual method;
· functional methods: situational language teaching;
· interactive methods (communicative language teaching, direct method, language immersion, natural approach, proprioceptive language learning method, silent way, storytelling, teaching proficiency through reading, total physical response etc.)
Kevin Yee, the author of interactive techniques, considers interactive methods to be the most effective ones. They involve a collection of more than 100 teaching strategies that aim to engage students in studying process. The Interactive Learning Approach has grown as an educational strategy that allows learners to engage fully in the learning process. Educators and academicians encourage learners with an environment that contains tools, resources or the application of concepts that enhances textbook learning. Beyond reading, reciting and recalling basic information, interactive learning encourages the learner to draw from prior experiences, gather information in and from the environment, and build knowledge of a particular concept for himself or herself.
The aim of language education is a target language user who has developed his/her language competence in all its respects, including cultural sub-competence. In other words, language teachers have to develop communicative competence of their students, and they should also shape their personality and social behaviour as a part of intercultural competence.
Our basic goal here is to explore the interactive methods of teaching English that have attracted the attention of the teachers in recent years, to show reason for interest in them, in what they are exploring, in what they accomplish, the principles and ideas that guide them.
The use of interactive technologies in the foreign language educational process enables special purpose language akmedevelopment and activates professional speech. Moveover, it influences the development of creativity, self-realization and autonomous work alilities of the students.
Tarabaeva E. V.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL CREATIVE SPEECH ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS
A new goal in teaching foreign languages to technical students is to train specialists to use a language in autonomous searching, processing, exchanging professionally useful information. Students can discover benefits and pleasures from being able to read in English in order to get this information from authentic sources, as reading is central in teaching technical students.
Autonomous cognitive learning integrates some language teaching approaches such as communicative and cognitive ones, approaches which can be combined with humanistic and learner – centered approaches within the frame of teaching engineering students how to read in English.
Autonomous cognitive learning is an activity which is guided by a teacher who takes into account the learners’ previous knowledge of the language and his experience or knowledge concerning his future profession. But we should remember that a teacher is not an instructor or a transmitter of knowledge in the context of autonomous cognitive learning, he\she is a facilitator, a partner suggesting strategies of learning to a student who can accept knowledge critically and evaluate himself.
So to define autonomous cognitive learning we can say that it is students’ ability to reflect critically what they read, to make decisions and act independently in the reading process.
This author sets forth several steps taken in designing a reading comprehension course within the frame of autonomous cognitive and creative learning which is appropriate for engineering students (Oil And Gas students in particular) who are supposed to complete three hundred forty hours of English instruction.
Step 1. Motivation. Students are supposed to have an intention to read professionally useful texts by choosing a text which can meet their requirements. It should be mentioned here that there is no need to persuade or encourage technical students to read the texts which contain necessary information for them.
Step 2. Content – based selection. Students may suppose what a text is about judging by the title or after reading a part of the text.
Step 3.Questions – based comprehending. As soon as the students learn the title of the given text, they are supposed to make up questions which probably will be answered while reading.
Each and every step may contain some sub – steps involving students into text –comprehending activities.
The results of the course are rather promising, though they may be far from the level of advanced language proficiency, but we shouldn’t forget that for technical students the foreign language is the means of reaching other goals.
AKMEMEANS OF THE LANGUAGE OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMIST TO BE
Today, in the world of global communication, learning foreign languages, in the process particular professional foreign languages becomes more important than ever. Specifically the most significant task in the process of foreign language acquisition is to create a textbook in the field of Economics enabling students to promote their creative activity and creative interaction. The author considers as an object of his research the creation of a textbook, using as a methodological basis an akmeological approach. The akmeology is regarded as a separate and new branch in the system of knowledge about a human being for the purpose of providing conditions for a person’s achieving the highest levels of professional skills.
The author selected 6 postulates devoted to determine the structure of the textbook: It must be - integrated and harmonic, logical and concise, culturally oriented; It must contain - information of regional geograph, akme-exercises, subjects for creative discussion.
The author attempted to make a product answering the requirements of akmeology as a new direction of interdisciplinary researches.The goal of the researches is to show how important it is to create and use professional textbooks including texts contening economical, cultural and axiological information, versus general ones. Akmeology is a new direction of interdisciplinary researches of a person, ality development. The necessity of its origin is explained basically by the sociocultural context of development of a transitive society which is compelled to solve the problems of the global-crisis character.
Prof. Trofimova G.S., PhD, Grand PhD
LINGUOAKMEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDENTS
The problem of communicative competence has recently been discussed by a number of researchers – representatives of different fields: psychology, linguistics, sociolinguistic, cognitive psychology and others. The term “communicative competence” is looked upon from two angles. Psychologists understand it as a personal characteristics based on a number of qualities like empathy, tact, ability to interact with others. Linguists suppose that communicative competence includes a number of components. A linguistic component deals with formal aspects of language. It’s a common knowledge that linguistic competence is the ability to produce and interpret meaningful utterances which are formed in accordance with the rules of the language concerned and bear their conventional meaning (Van Dyek, 1986).
Sociolinguistic component deals with social aspects of language use.
Strategic component deals with the selection, interrelation and coordination of other components to be brought to bear on the communicative event and the accomplishment of the user/learner’s communicative intentions.
Some researchers consider communicative competence as an integration of sociocultural knowledge and language proficiency which extends the learner’s horizon of communication far beyond that of his own linguistic community.
To obtain a high level of communicative competence is possible in case a person acquired the basic elements of social competence. That is not so easy, especially for the so=called introverts. Introversion is known as “inner directedness” and a preference for abstract ideas rather than concrete objects (G/ Wilson). Social competence is “the will and the skill to interact with others”.
Some people possess the necessary skills and interact easily by nature, other have to take pains achieving the necessary level of communicative competence.
Researchers in the sphere of linguoakmeological work out effective technologies which help learners of English to make their speech highly idiomatic, linguistically correct. Of course, a native speaker will always be distinguished from the non-native speaker but the idea of setting relationship between communication partners from far away foreign countries is acceptable in case you put all the akmeological principals that you could put into action in action.
AKMEOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY OF STUDENT DEVELOPMENT BY MEANS OF NATIVE AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES
To solve the problems of language studying we have specified factors that contribute or do not contribute to the task of highest level of achievement in development of both linguistics teacher’s professional activity and akmeological development of students while studying language (whether native or foreign). Linguistic and akmeological approaches allow developing akmeological technologies for successful language studying.
The use of every language’s potential is of linguistic, akmeological, and didactic value—there appear more opportunities to focus the students’ attention on realizing the meaning of every part of speech, on grasping the techniques of collocation construction, construction of all types of sentences and of a clear, short, informative, and interesting utterance; and also on the correct oral comprehension of the core of studying material. While studying native language, the greatest attention is paid to richness and the role of the mother tongue in thought and speech.
Of great importance is also the following: correct logical order of parts of speech studying; the use of study texts and akmeological training involving linguistic means common for different genres and styles of the language; thinking processes inducing balanced intellectual development and the establishment of spiritual and moral self-identity and personality.
Provided that all those factors are taken into account while creating new textbooks, there will be reasons for hope that language studying along with use of abovementioned akmeological means will have positive influence on establishing not only a student’s identity, but a teacher’s aswell.
THE COMPETENCE MODEL OF PROFESSIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE AKMEDEVELOPMENT
A modern language educational paradigm is aimed at the competence based educational model which let us use different approaches in teaching. Linguoakmeological approach is one of them.
It’s connected with the competence approach in the following way: The students learn linguistics not for the sake of knowing it, but for the sake of using lexical or grammar structures in speech. The language acquisition helps the students to achieve “akme” in their professional development if we mean their occupation – to be is teaching. Teaching should combine both: the knowledge of the language and professional skills.
To achieve “acme” there is a variety of forms, means and techniques at the educational institution. One of them plays an extremely significant role – it’s out-of-class activities, such as phonetic contests, amateur theatre, musical societies, clubs and others.
The system of class and out-of-class activities of the students is united by certain pedagogical purposes, the achievement of which provides for successful language acquisition, professional speech skills and personal development of the students.