BOUNDARY WATER IN A LIVING ORGANISM

Boundary water in a living organism. Active regulation and control of physical parameters of water as a basis of a living organism


By Dr. Postnov S.E., PhD, Grand PhD    

          Development of this research line started from the piece of evidence obtained  in 1984 in Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute within the limits of the research of  flow over an underwater high speed object. This research had nothing to do with biology or medicine. However, later it turned out to have become a basis for a new concept in biology and medicine and let us look at biophysical processes of a living organism in a different – non-conventional - way from the viewpoint of physics, biology and medicine.

The research was carried out by the leading institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and is aimed at studying biophysical water properties and the way it affects living bodies.

The experimental evidence shows that there is a boundary layer in the water/surface system not only in a classical case, i.e. in a flowage, but also in still water. The boundary layer water has a number of particular physical properties.

 

 

 It has been proved that water in a living organism (blood plasma, lymph, intercellular and intracellular liquid) can only be in a boundary layer state. Not in the form of gel or in a glassy state, but exactly in boundary layer state. This fact explains the difference between physical parameters of water in a living organism from the ones of water we drink.

We have offered explanations of the physical mechanism of boundary layer formation both in a living organism and on abiotic surfaces at the distance of 0-350 µm from the surface forming a boundary layer.

There is an experimental evidence that proves the hypothesis that physical parameters of body liquid including blood plasma, lymph plasma, intercellular and intracellular liquid (let us call it further in this article “body liquid”) are the parameters which determine the course of biochemical reactions in a living organism.

Another experimental evidence proves the hypothesis that by changing physical parameters of body liquidone can control and determine both biochemical reactions and general biological processes taking place in the organism.

There was elaborated a technology which allows to change physical parameters of the liquid inside a living organism.

A lot of biological and medical research has been done on human cell cultures, laboratory animals, apes. By the example of volunteers the mechanism of body liquid physical parameters change has been studied as well as the way this change affects biological, biochemical and medical processes of a living organism.

A biophysical model of a living organism has been offered on the basis of the above-listed assumptions and a vast range of experimental evidences. This model represents an attempt to systemize the existing experimental material, to put forward hypotheses, to formulate the consequences for physical aspects of life of a living organism as a system.

The hypotheses and consequences have been formulated on the basis of classical biology and classical physics.

 

Introduction

 

In 1984 a team of scientists of Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute found out while studying air-water mixture flow over bodies that in a narrow layer of water adjacent to an object’s surface, i.e. in the boundary layer, air bubbles were missing. In the same year it was found out that the boundary layer exists even in still water. It was also established that boundary water physical parameters were different from those of bulk water, i.e. of the water remote from an object’s surface. For example, in a suspension the following regularity was detected: the closer to the surface the fewer solid particles per volume unit, next to the surface there were no solid particles at all.  Prof. G. Pollack [5] obtained similar evidence 20 years later, moreover, he registered that electrical potential changed in a non-linear manner the closer it got to the surface.  The analysis of the experimental evidence obtained in Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute showed that near-wall water of the boundary layer (further “boundary water”) is very similar to human body liquidaccording to many of its physical parameters. This fact established at the end of the eighties became a starting point for research of boundary water phenomenon which resulted in building a biophysical model of a living organism which not only helps to explain a huge volume of experimental materials accumulated by scientists but also allows to forecast research results.

 “Boundary layer theory” is a fundamental branch of gas and fluid mechanics and dates back to 1904 when the first boundary layer equations were published. The fact that boundary layer behaves almost like an autonomous object has been known for a long time as well as the fact that physical parameters of water in a living organism are different from those of bulk water. The experimental fact that boundary water parameters and parameters of water in a living organism are very close had not been explained until the biophysical model of a living organism was elaborated. It includes hypotheses and conclusions based on experimental data. The model consists of two parts - physical and biological - which are reflected in its name.

G. Pollack [5] says that water in a cell is a special jelly-like condition. As our research shows, water in a cell of a living organism is nothing special from viewpoint of physics - it is in a state of boundary layer water which has been studied in hydrodynamics for over 70 years.

Before passing over to biophysical model of a living organism, let us consider some biophysical aspects of the problem.

 Some biophysical aspects of the problem to be solved

Methods of research:

·         physical parameters have been measured with physical instruments;

·         generally acknowledged methods of biology;

·         medical methods approved by Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation.

          Results are discussed, hypotheses are put forward and conclusions are made only within the boundaries of classical physics, classical biology and classical medicine.

 In a living organism, ordinary water taken from environment goes through a range of changes which lead to changes of its physical properties. The water acquires the properties that support life itself in a living organism. The more evolved the organism is, the more significant the changes of water physical properties in it. In 1935 the biologist E. Bauer in his book "Theoretical biology" [7] put forward a hypothesis that an organism spends a lot of energy on changing physical properties of water. The recent experimental data proved that Bauer was right.   

In ideal conditions an organism has enough power to transform potable water into an adequate aqueous medium and keep up the required physical parameters of body liquid. But real life is not that simple. The organism is exposed to external and internal factors such as low-quality food, irregularity of living, aggressive environment, viruses, bacteria, etc. An organism is compelled to spend its energy on counteracting negative external and internal factors. Unfortunately, its energy stores are limited. A moment comes when it cannot maintain its body liquid physical parameters as they should be, neither in a cell or in an organ, nor in an organism as a whole. At that moment serious problems start because biochemical reactions can be neither qualitatively nor quantitatively correct. According to research results, this leads to decrease of immunity, hypoxia, derangement of metabolism, etc., simultaneously with chronic fatigue syndrome aggravated with pathologic processes caused, along with other reasons, by virus infections and bacillosis.

         A natural question emerges: if somehow for some period of time the body liquid physical properties that have been lost or weakened are restored, what will happen? The body will probably not need to spend its energy obtained by way of oxidative reactions on maintaining its physical properties. Consequently, it can, at its own discretion, direct the saved energy there where it is needed at this moment.

         Objective of research: to prove by experiment the above presented hypothesis.

         Before proceeding to this work we should answer the following question: how can physical properties of body liquid be changed at once? There are dozens of liters of liquid in a human being, this is not an ordinary liquid, this is a substance making a basis of life, substance in which sophisticated biochemical processes are going on all the time.

         The question is far from being a simple one. But if biology and medicine manage at least partially to answer it what opportunities will open up: a human organism will become able on its own or with minimal interference from outside, for example, with the help of medicines, to immediately detect disorders in its systems and has all the necessary prerequisites for their efficient elimination.

         It is impossible to obtain the same result with the help of medicines and chemical agents. The procedure of human body liquid correction resembles more physio procedure than drug therapy.

         Solution turned up from where it was not expected.

         Serious work in this direction was prompted with a piece of evidence obtained in mid-eighties of the twentieth century in Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute during studies of flow over objects moving under water at a high speed (submarines, torpedoes, etc.). It was established that in the thin water layer adjacent to the surface of the body moving under water (that is in the so called boundary layer) water acquired a number of physical properties which were fundamentally different from those of bulk water. These parameters can be regulated. Moreover, one can select surfaces in contact with which boundary layer water acquires the physical properties which are very close to those of blood plasma and human intercellular fluid.

          It should be noted – and it is crucial - that change of physical parameters of water in the boundary layer develops itself in the same way like in a living organism from viewpoint of physics [1]. The physical mechanism of this phenomenon has been studied by now – this is epitaxy, in this particular case – growth of a liquid crystal of water on the substrate that is on the surface which is in contact with water.

         The technique of separation of the water with changed physical and biological parameters from boundary layer has been elaborated by now [3]. This water, let us call it “Boundary water” or “Awoda”, served as prototype of a preparation with which body liquid parameters were changed within the limits of the experiments. 

         Medical research was carried out according to classical algorithm: first on human cell cultures, then on laboratory animals, apes and, finally, volunteers.

         The leading institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences continue doing this research.

         Safety for a human-being and absence of side effects have been established during this research, a wide range of positive effects on a living organism have been identified.

      The most important of them are as follows [2]:

 - slowing down and even cessation of neuronal death process in brain (this process gets faster in the course of ageing of any mammal, including a human-being);

- a very powerful antiviral action which affects such viruses as human influenza virus, human pandemic influenza virus (swine influenza), herpes virus, oncovirus SV40, etc.;

- a very powerful immune stimulating and regulating action;

- a very good interaction with pharmaceuticals.

         In some cases not just facts of therapeutic action of the preparation were established but its biological mechanism at the cellular level was disclosed, too [2].

          It should be noted that according to research results, the elaborated technique or, to be more precise, physio procedure based on water extracted from boundary layer combines perfectly with all the modern medicines [2]. Moreover, the process of boundary water influence on a human body can be controlled with diagnostic systems used in medicine nowadays and can be regulated, too.

                 Good interaction with pharmaceuticals and health-improving preparations is explained by the fact that boundary water allows the body to function on a systems level, that is on the level of body systems – central nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, etc. Boundary water helps to overcome a lot of diseases, if a body has enough resources. But, unfortunately, in today’s reality very few people have such resources, consequently, medicines and health-improving preparations are needed. 

          In this case medicines become much more efficacious [2] as the ground for their work has already been prepared with the help of boundary water. This fact was clinically proved.

          The only rule is: medicines should be taken at least one hour after boundary water intake. Otherwise, the water is going to inactivate the medicines.

         Besides systemic effect, the water from boundary layer has a range of its own therapeutic effects. Here are some of them:

·         immune stimulating effect on cellular level;

·         regulation of humoral immunity;

·         marked antiviral action;

·         recoveryof  nerveconduction;

·         efficacy against hypoxia including hypoxia of brain and cardiac muscle;

·         efficacious detoxication;

·         restoration of negative charge in nuclei of cells and red blood cells; 

·         elimination of chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep restoration and metabolism normalization;

·         many other effects.

 

         The research results show that the most efficient form of intake is irrigation of tunica mucosa of mouth, the dose in this case is normally 0,1-0,5 ml.

         An interesting fact is that negative charge is restored in cell nuclei with the help of boundary water. Prof. Shakhbazov, a Soviet scientist, elaborated in the eighties of the twentieth century a technique for assessment of physiological age according to percentage of negatively charged cell nuclei [8]. The technique is based on a vast experimental material collected by the scientist himself and his disciples. The technique helps assess biological age of a human being not just on a cellular level but on an intracellular one. It was proved that boundary water rejuvenates cells from viewpoint of their nuclei condition in an efficient way. The same happens to red blood cells.  

          One normally starts perceiving the effect of boundary water after a couple of intakes. There is one rule to be observed: taking in boundary water one should drink at least 1,5l of good quality bulk water a day and make sure that the body receives a sufficient amount of proteins, fats, vitamins, micro- and macro elements, etc. 

         Thus, boundary water intake creates conditions in which our body is able to restore itself and to cope with numerous diseases peculiar to a contemporary human being in a reasonable period of time if the body possesses enough inner resources. If the resources are not enough, medicines are needed. Even in complicated cases recovery happens much earlier than without boundary water use. 

 Physical aspect of the proposed biophysical model

 In the water/surface system there is a near-wall layer about 300 µm thick in which instruments register a number of differences in physical properties in comparison with the environmental bulk water, such as higher electro conductivity, lower heat capacity, etc. Let us call the water from boundary layer “boundary water”, while the environmental water – “bulk water”. The differences in physical properties of these two water types grow more marked in a nonlinear manner the closer it gets to the surface.

         Heat capacity of boundary water is lower than that of bulk water. Heat capacity from viewpoint of physics is a quantitative characteristic of a number of degrees of freedom of substance molecules or atoms. Thus, boundary water molecules have fewer degrees of freedom than bulk water molecules. This means that in the same conditions and in same volume of water, boundary water, i.e. water near wall, has geometrically more marked and long-lasting hydrogen bonds than bulk water. This allows to make the following conclusion:

         Hypothesis: due to forming surface between the layers and in each layer of boundary water, boundary water intermolecular (hydrogen) bonds are stabler from viewpoint of decay period and more pronounced from viewpoint of geometry than bulk water intermolecular bonds.

Piece of evidence: the closer to the surface, the stabler intermolecular bonds.

As water has some properties of a crystal one can make a supposition: a number of degrees of freedom decreases under influence of the surface forming boundary layer. Boundary layer formation mechanism is a kind of a well-known process called epitaxy.

Hypothesis: from viewpoint of physics, formation and growth of water liquid crystal in boundary layer is a kind of epitaxy process that is growth layer by layer of a crystal body on a surface called substrate; the growing crystal body takes over the crystallographic form of the substrate.

This explains, for example, why properties of the same water in boundary layers near different surfaces have quantitative differences which were accurately registered. Just like properties of waters of different origins and chemistries are different in boundary layer near the same surface.

A crystal and a substrate can be made either of the same material or of different ones (heteroepitaxy) and this influences very much epitaxy process. In case of heteroepitaxy the process depends on difference between lattice constants of crystals. If the difference is over 10% (which is our case), some surfaces of the substrate lattice have no continuation in the lattice of the growing crystal. The edges of such broken surfaces make up dislocations, which leads to distortion and accumulation of errors in the lattice of the growing crystal. There are errors caused by collocations, too. Collocations are local lattice disturbances in the growing crystal stipulated by various reasons: here as well refers the fact that the growing crystal is a liquid even though with the properties of a crystal, and it is still prone to Brownian motion and, as a rule, heterogeneous by its content because of dissolved chemical agents. Due to this, each subsequent layer is different by its crystal structure from the previous one, that is regular destruction of the crystal structure formed by the substrate takes place. This explains the nonlinear correlation: the farther from the surface the more similar boundary water properties to bulk water properties.

Existence of boundary layer with water properties changing in a nonlinear manner explains numerous pieces of evidence: for example, in frozen meat, part of water is frozen, another part is in the state close to amorphous, the rest of water doesn’t get frozen; Another example – bound water and its properties. This hypothesis explains numerous pieces of evidence, like water in small capillaries, nanotubes, body cells being in a state close to “crystalline” and “glassy”, “jelly-like” and others.

The above-listed pieces of information can be set out in the following theses:

a) near the surface adjacent to water there is a relatively thin water layer - boundary layer  properties of which are different from those of bulk water in the environment;

b) boundary water properties depend on the surface material, origin of water and on the substances dissolved in the water;

c) the surface in contact with water determines formation of boundary layer;

d) boundary layer is a liquid crystal (as far as it can be applied to water) grown on the surface like on a substrate (heteroepitaxy);

e) the farther from the surface the weaker (in a nonlinear manner) boundary water properties and the closer they are to bulk water properties.

 

Biological aspect of the proposed biophysical model

 Hypothesis: water in a living organism is only in the boundary water condition.

         Prima facie in human blood supply system there is a lot of water: an average human being has approximately six liters of blood, of which three liters of plasma and three liters of red cells. Without allowance for other structures, such as vessel walls, etc., let us do some calculations. The total area of red cells surface is 3500 m². Three liters of plasma uniformly distributed on this surface make up liquid layer about 1 micrometer thick which is 0,3% of boundary layer height subject to registering with instruments (300 µm). Thus, even in a large vessel water exists in the form of boundary layer made up with red cells, vessel walls, etc. The same refers to intracellular liquid. The size of procariotic cells varies from 0,5 to 5 µm (1,7% of boundary layer height), while eukaryotic cells size varies from 10 to 50 µm (17% of boundary layer height). But one cannot make conclusions on the basis of absolute sizes because a cell is filled with cytoplasm which contains organoids (ribosomes, mitochondria, vacuoles, etc.), cell inclusions, a nucleus, genetic material in the form of DNA molecule, etc. Consequently, a typical size becomes much smaller because each biological object forms its own boundary layer on its surface. The boundary layer height in this case is close to that in blood.

Hypothesis: each biological structure forms its boundary layer, the properties of which depend on molecular and spatial characteristics of the structure.  

Consequence: biological structures interact, along with other ways, through mutual impact of their boundary layers.

Hypothesis: Biological structures such as DNA, proteins, red blood cells, mitochondria, cells, organs, form their boundary layers with the properties which provide their optimal functioning. Boundary water properties of various biostructures differ from each other in a number of ways; in the course of a life cycle or a functional cycle the properties may change even within one and the same structure.  

- The more differs the metabolism of cells, the more differ the properties of boundary water in these cells.

- Boundary water of a biostructure due to its physical properties is a powerful buffer which protects it from internal and external impacts.

- A vital task of an organism is to create and maintain “correct” properties of boundary water in each organ, cell, etc.  

This hypothesis is proved with the following pieces of evidence:

- amount of physical solution which can be injected intravenously in a human body without negative consequences is restricted;

 - water in a cancerous growth differs by its physical properties from water in a healthy organ[4];

- adding the boundary water “Awoda”, properties of which are close to integral properties of human body liquid, to human cell culture leads to almost no change of the viability of  continuous  normal cells, causes drastic suppression of proliferation of various oncogenic cells after one passage and their complete degeneration after the second passage [2].

 Any organic and inorganic structures coming inside an organism, whether they take part in metabolic processes or not, affect the properties of the body boundary water because they form around themselves their own boundary layer. Their influence can be many-sided.

A fault in molecular structure of any part of a cell threatens with distortion of its boundary water properties. Such a fault in several cells puts at risk the whole organ. The same refers to organic and inorganic substances which enter a body from outside and participate in cell metabolism. Their molecules form boundary water layers around themselves which can either favour or disturb vital functions of cells.  From viewpoint of physics, an organ gets into serious trouble when it or an organism as a whole for some reason doesn’t manage to correct faults in boundary water any more.

A converse effect might as well exist:

Hypothesis: restoration of physical properties of boundary water in any biological structure exposed to mutation, attack of virus, etc., leads to significant abatement of negative influence, mobilization of immunity, on all levels including a cellular one.   

Hypothesis: restoration of physical properties of boundary water in a living organism results in restoration of biochemical and biological processes within the limits of its vital activity; restoration of its systems: nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, etc. 

Currentlythere are numerous experimental evidences which prove these hypotheses.         

 Thus:

- water in a living organism is in boundary water state;

- boundary layer of an organism is manifold, rich of energy and has a number of unique physical properties and can be considered as an independent system which, along with circulatory system, lymphatic system, etc., can take part in a number of physical processes in an organism;

- each biological structure of an organism forms boundary layer with optimal properties. These properties depend on molecular and spatial structure of a biostructure and water chemistry;

- besides other ways of interaction, biological structures interact through cross-effect of their individual boundary layers;

- interference in molecular and spatial structure of a biological structure causes changes in its boundary layer properties;

- there is a maximal limit of change in boundary layer water properties (a local one and a general one), if it is exceeded, irreversible changes take place in a living organism, on the level of a cell, organ or organism as a whole;

- a living organism spends incoming energy, along with other activities, on maintaining and restoration of boundary water properties;

- restoration of boundary water properties to the level (local and general) required by the organism results in significant abatement of negative influence, mobilization of immunity on all levels including cellular one, restoration of biochemical and biological processes within the limits of organism vital activity, restoration of its systems activity.

 Conclusions

Physical parameters of body liquid can be actively influenced upon, thus can be regulated biochemical reactions and biochemical processes in general going on in an organism.  

A technique of active regulation of human body liquid physical parameters has been elaborated. Itssafetyhasbeenestablished.

Efficiency of the technique of active regulation of human body liquid physical parameters for human organism restoration and treatment and prevention of diseases has been experimentally proved.

Pieces of evidence show that the proposed biophysical model which implies that water inside a living organism is in a physical state of boundary layer water can be considered experimentally verified and has the right to exist.

The biophysical model not only explains the available pieces of evidence but also allows to forecast results of experiments.

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