MARITIME TERRORISM : A CASE STUDY OF SEA TIGERS OF LTTE IN SRI LANKA

 

BY

 

DR. MAHINDA BALASURIYA

Grand Ph.D., (IUFS Russia), M.Phil., (Sri Lanka), B.Sc., (India)

INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE (CHIEF OF POLICE)

SRI LANKA

 

'The Best means of protecting Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) and bolstering the full alliance is by the conduct of sea control operations for forward" – Vice Admiral Mustin.

 

INTRODUCTION TO MARITIME TERRORISM

 

Definition

 

The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP) working Group has offered an extensive definition for maritime terrorism.

 

".. the  undertaking of terrorist acts and activities within the maritime environment, using or against vessels or fixed platforms at sea or in port, against any one of their passengers or personnel against coastal facilities or settlements, including tourist resorts, port areas and port  areas and port towns or cities"

 

This definition, however, does not define what terrorism is and whether it would only include maritime attacks against civilian (merchant) vessels or also attacks against military crafts. I define maritime terrorism, therefore, as the use or threat of violence against a ship (civilian as well as military), its passengers or sailors, cargo, a port facility, or if the purpose is solely a platform for political ends. The definition can be expanded to include the use of the maritime transportation system to smuggle terrorists or terrorist materials into the targeted country. Maritime terrorism is motivated by political goals beyond the immediate act of  attacking a maritime target.

 

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HUMAN RIGHTS Vs. TERRORISM: PRACTICING PROMOTING AND PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN A SOCIETY EFFECTED BY TERRORISM

Article No. 13

September 2010.

 

HUMAN RIGHTS Vs. TERRORISM: PRACTICING PROMOTING

AND PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN A SOCIETY EFFECTED

BY TERRORISM

 

BY

 

DR. MAHINDA BALASURIYA

Grand Ph.D., (IUFS Russia), M.Phil., (Sri Lanka), B.Sc., (India)

INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE (CHIEF OF POLICE)

SRI LANKA

 

01.         INTRODUCTION

 

The doctrine of Human Rights is necessarily a universal doctrine. It ascribes a single set of rights to entire humanity. Yet it has to assert its universal rights in a world characterized by diversity- a world in which people live in different circumstances, bear different cultures, and pursue different forms of life. In fact, a very large portion of human diversity is quite unproblematic for a theory of human rights. Human individuals exhibit different physical and personal characteristics, but that sort of diversity does not prevent  identifying all of those human beings as human and insisting that all are entitled to the same minimum of concern and respect merely as human beings. In addition, human beings exhibit differences as members of different societies and cultures, but, again much of that diversity need not trouble the human rights theorist. Differences in diet, dress, leisure pursuits, literature, musical forms and the like, do not prevent our claiming that the human beings that exhibit those differences posses a uniform set of rights as human beings. On the contrary, the rights commonly claimed for human beings would include rights to express and to pursue those differences.

 

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LTTE'S PROPAGANDA INFRASTRUCTURE AND LTTE'S EXPLOITATION OF NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY

 

 

 

LTTE's Propaganda Infrastructure and LTTE'S Exploitation of New

Media Technology

 

BY

 

DR. MAHINDA BALASURIYA

Grand Ph.D., (IUFS Russia), M.Phil., (Sri Lanka), B.Sc., (India)

INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE (CHIEF OF POLICE)

SRI LANKA

 

 

 

"The Gravest danger to freedom Lies at the Perilous Cross Roads of Radicalism and Technology"                                               

-President George Bush-

 

Introduction

 

Propaganda is defined by the North Atlantic Alliance as any information, ideas, doctrines or special appeals disseminated to influence the opinion, emotions, attitudes or behaviour of any specified group in order to benefit the sponsor either directly or indirectly. (NATO Glossary of Military Terms, p. 2 - 205). Terrorism, in Grant Wardlaw's definition, is the use, or threat of use, of violence by an individual or a group, whether acting for or in opposition or established authority, when such action is designed to create extreme anxiety and / or fear-inducing effects in a target group larger than the immediate victims with the purpose of coercing that group into acceding to the political demands of the perpetrators. (Grant Wardlaw, Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics, and Counter Measures, Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. 16.

 

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RECRUITMENT OF CHILD SOLDIERS BY THE LTTE IN SRI LANKA

 

 

RECRUITMENT OF CHILD SOLDIERS

BY THE LTTE IN SRI LANKA

 

BY

 

DR. MAHINDA BALASURIYA

Grand Ph.D., (IUFS Russia), M.Phil., (Sri Lanka), B.Sc., (India)

INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE (CHIEF OF POLICE)

SRI LANKA

 

 

 

 

"It is immoral that adults want children to fight their wars for them. There is simply No Excuse. No acceptable argument for Arming Children"

 

The Most Rev. Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

Concern is growing about the increasing use of child soldiers in armed conflicts around the world. However, it may not be enough to just condemn or prohibit the recruitment of children. We need to ask why children join clandestine armies. If we are to prevent children fighting we need to understand the conditions under which children become soldiers and work to improve these conditions. This case study that of Sri Lanka may shed some light on the issues.

 

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