AZERBAIJAN MODEL OF
AND ITS IMPROVEMENT DIRECTIONS
Mansimov Natig Rafig
PhD. in Social Work (Social Management)
About De-institutionalism, as well as, application of this model in Azerbaijan, methods of its improvement were noted in detailed form in the article.
Key words: de-institutionalism, children’s institutions, family, children’s homes, problems of children
De- institutionalism projects in every country may be solved by the justification of measures having program character and their composition. This process reflects in itself the evaluation of existing situation, organization of program type model and development mechanisms.
The model of transformation of existing situation happened on the basis of qualitatively new view and hypothesis formed on social ideas within USSR for a long time. Transformation model, its contour, aim and main sources and directions of resource provision are grounded in order to renew these stereotypes and adjust it in accordance with new development tendencies. We recommend two main directions for radical change of existing situation of transformation model:
- Functional model composed in reference with the division of important measures and duties by purposed-program and estimated for a long period.
- Resource model that provide flexible change between expenditure and final result by taking into consideration resource provision and structural changes.
In the first case, aims and de- institutionalization programs and functional duties of their subjects are forecasted. In each forecasted variant, divisional scheme and logical results of resource provision and duties are given.
De- institutionalization is formed as a policy, finds its solution ways and is realized by state care and intervention having program character. The relative status of person is related to the long-term limitations, turns into demand system.
Children in boarding school are brought up in a limited frame. In family bringing, welfare, economic condition, education of family members, its house condition, luxurious lifestyle creates more relevant relation from physiological point of view in children. Limited resources, poverty limit along with being material problem of all families, adversely affects the development of child. In this term, boarding education, its representation in limited context reduces tolerance in society, creates mental disagreement and affects physical, intellectual development of child. Therefore purposed approach turns into political motive on the basis of strategy on assessing the effect of social environment on all children education, meeting financial provisional level, material and moral demand of child.
Material provisional level of the population of Azerbaijan and its marriage-divorce features form demographic composition, character of material resources for living, accordingly children problems, characteristics of their family and social educational methods. In this direction, stability of family, financial provision problems of children in cases of divorce and their education issues determine the main directions of solution ways of children problems in Azerbaijan. Financial provision of family in Azerbaijan is determined by the number of children, their ages, employment and usage forms of child labor in the use of special means. Employment of family members, the level of their incomes creates consumer model of each family member. So that income level per person being criteria created consumer behavior model in accordance with the moral demand:
– income per person ;
– number of persons working;
– their salary;
– level of transfer income;
De- institutionalization model is an organizational structure. National-moral characters, behavior and parameters of standard of life are reflected behind this structure. Labor division, positions and laws play an important role among subjects of this process. In our opinion, there should be law in modernization process. The main aim and economic basis of this law, its organizational structure and management mechanism system and realization mechanisms should be reflected. Growth rate of number of children given to the family during the condition of existing child institutions in the republic and its de- institutionalization justifies the direction of realization of reforms.
The main aim of de- institutionalization law covers the legal and normative basis of giving children from boarding type institutions for being brought up by family. This is integral part of reforms policy in the country. Of course, as each reform has social consequences, in this direction reforms should be implemented in accordance with “test-result” model step by step.
Expenditures of alternative family arrangement should not exceed total budget. So that financial limitation of arrangement of family education of children and the conception of finding necessary resources being its social meaning accepts the model of de- institutionalization as financial model. As de- institutionalization is organization system of program character, the following main phases may be divided:
· Determine the demand of population on republic and separate provinces.
· Give suggestions to state and commercial structures by forecasting forms and methods of care for children evaluating public potential;
· Justify pilot institutions in reforms and determine its duties;
· Improve their relation form with children given to family by giving advices to the employees of children institutions;
· Determine the number of employees, budget estimates taken for them and change dynamic with budget projects;
· Choose organizations of new budget sources and measures of program characters;
· Give complex set of measure of program character by evaluating individual demand and realization mechanism;
· Give tasks entrusted to bodies by composing main directions of control over it and complex plan.
Along with these measures, asses the importance of chosen projects by evaluating the expected results, as well as:
- reduce the number of children who are deprived of their parents;
- expect the reduction of the number of children in boarding school;
- reduce the number of boarding schools that couldn’t turn into family education;
- ensure the growth of number of children in the educational institutions of family type;
- increase the number of family type institutions;
- ensure control over financial forecast and cost structure and social-normative indicators;
- ensure alternative balance between incurred costs and obtained qualitative changes during alternative care;
- increase care for children by ensuring flexible state system.
Existence of state programs for the implementation of the above mentioned measure and the authorities of the body that controls their realizations are taken as a basis. The main directions of state program is implemented by the practice of aims, means and organizational management. Main indicators and principles are realized by the following sequence:
- determine the priority directions of family arrangement of orphans by ensuring new technology and information;
- optimization of regulations and processes of national adoption;
- establishment of public boards and other bodies;
- improvement of technological works of bank data about children;
- public propaganda of adoption and active propaganda of other family forms;
- evaluate children’s joining into family by implementation of monitoring every year;
- improvement of the quality of service to children joined into the family;
- professional organization of mixed families;
- way of involving extra-budgetary funds and non-state funds, increase normative-legal measures and control over provided services.
De- institutionalization process is established on the principles that creates great opportunity for the development of children in family and addressed complex services, essentially prophylactic measures. This process is related to the improvement of condition of public facilities, organization of complex services and having institutional condition that affects moral development of children.
Organization of condition of university type of children institutions, development of healthy from physical point of view, expanding educational complexes is important. Other condition is expanding camping and sport complex structure, camps that provide the physical health of children without any medical assistance.
Implementation of monitoring in order to improve the condition of existing children’s homes, solution ways of destiny of children after leaving boarding school, financing sources, directions of providing with apartment and work are evaluated.
Educational level of children who are brought up, their social and labor activity, as well as, family and reproduction quality is evaluated by implementing monitoring. These aims are measured by the efficiency of the program itself. The reality of the efficiency of program, their financial provision, targeting of obtained results and its social direction is controlled. As a targeted program, the following scheme should be applied (Scheme 1.2.). The effect of the results obtained in the adaptation process in adjustment gained by direct and reverse ways are evaluated.
As it can be seen from scheme, the main aim is to develop development strategy in accordance with the form and content of relations among the children joining to family, children institutions and families and it is planned to apply them. To achieve the aim put forward is ensured with review of targeted programs and resource programs. Existing reality, living standards, change of the number of women who work determines the ratios between children institutions and their acceptance to family.
2. Social –economic results of de- institutionalization process
Formation of priority between family and child institutions in Azerbaijan and decision making is related to a number of national economic and qualitative problems. The assessment of the existing reality shows that the most characteristics feature is the cases that exist in the village of Azerbaijan. The survey materials show that village population accepts public education as the most efficient form. However usage degree in public educational institutions is 5-6%. This ratio has decreased in this condition. Unemployment problem, decrease of incomes of population per person also decreases the usage ratio form boarding schools at the end result.
The level of education, paid and unpaid education system creates barriers and certain problems in the insensitivity of children joining into family in modern condition. Special requirements and methodical approach principles should be established on program character standard-normative principles in relation to a number of important factors and indicators in the adoption of children to family, state, non-state and family duties, evaluation of their resources. Children given to the families when being adapted not only in accordance with the reproduction demands from financial provision and physical term, but also detailed development strategy, it is the most effective variant.
Resource potential necessary for the normal development of each child in Azerbaijan, not depending on its sources is assessed by long-term forecast indicators.
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