THE SCIENCE OF FAT LOSS

Dr.Raven Oscar Flores PhD ,CSCS, Kinesiology ,Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist, ISSA PT

Steve Trezek, ACE PT, NASM PT, IFPA Professional Natural Bodybuilder, NPC Natural Champion, Top accredited Fitness Leader 2008-2011 in the Health Club Industry

 Nicholas David Bardi, NPTI PT

There are not any quick fixes or magic pills to make you lose weight. You can lose water weight in a hurry, but your body fat % will not change. 1 pound of fat consists of 3500 calories while water in itself contains no fat. Unless you are actually burning 3500 calories, you are not losing body fat. In order to burn off body fat and lose weight with these steps are essential.

There are 4 major  components to body fat loss; Strength Training, Diet and H.I.I.T (High intensity interval training) and Sleep (rest and recovery) used together these 4 components are the surest way to burn the most amount of fat in the quickest, safest most effective way and building lean muscle throughout the body.  Let's learn the basics of these components to fully understand their function and to see why they will lead you to long term success and fat loss. The information is to help you understand the science behind why we need to incorporate all 4 factors into our training regimen in order to achieve a long term healthy lifestyle.

 

Strength Training- Building muscle is the 1st component that will lead you to fat loss, strength training leaves you with a 24-36 hour after burn and Thermogenic effect(Thermic effect of food (also commonly known simply as thermic effect when the context is known), or TEF in shorthand, is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for storage and use.1 It is one of the components of metabolism along with the resting metabolic rate, and the exercise component)

 With each pound of muscle, you have built you are burning an extra 50 calories a day while your body is at rest. This means that you will continue to burn calories even when you are not working at all. Strength training needs to be performed 5-6 days per week for maximum results. Muscle is the only thing will burn fat and increase your metabolism. Building lean muscle is a key component.

Diet- by eating lean protein and a whole grain every three hours our bodies will start to burn fat just by doing this alone, it is the thermogenic effect of food. You will get an increase of metabolism and will be fueling your body to burn fat 24 hours a day. Processing protein requires the greatest expenditure of energy, with estimates ranging as high as 30%. Dietary fat, on the other hand, is so easily processed and turned into body fat that there is little thermic effect, perhaps only 2 or 3%. The amount of energy required to process carbohydrates falls between that of protein and fat. It is essential to take in protein as it also is the building block of muscle. Eating pre and post workout is a very important factor too, our bodies need fuel to perform the workouts to our full potential just as much as we need the post workout to restore our nutrients and feed our muscles to start burning the fat.

 

H.I.I.T-(High Intensity Interval Training) The beauty of high intensity interval training (or HIIT for short) lies its ability to keep you burning fat long after you leave the gym.  Your body isn’t able to bring in enough oxygen during periods of hard work. Therefore, you accumulate a “debt” of oxygen that must be repaid post-workout in order to get back to Normal. The result is your metabolism is revved for hours after you leave the gym. Very experienced trainers refer to this phenomenon as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption or EPOC. The biggest way to use it to your advantage is to make short, intense exercise bouts a regular piece of your workout regimen. Add HIIT at the end of your workouts, no matter if you are doing a total body or concentrated body part exercise training. It is true that you may only burn around 100 to 150 calories doing 10-15minutes of H.I.I.T it is the after burn of 12-14 hours post H.I.I.T that creates the metabolic change that leads to fat burn. For maximum fat loss use H.I.I.T training 3 to 4 times per training week.

 SLEEP- Strategic Strength Training, Diet and H.I.I.T principles to accelerate “Fat Loss”, as We have proven these lifestyle behaviors over the last 20 years in the industry, We would be providing the COMPLETE method an injustice if the importance of proper and adequate rest wasn’t folded into the processs.  Who doesn’t feel amazing and energized after a complete uninterrupted night of sound sleep?  Sleep and rest have its obvious extrinsic benefits, but it’s a lack of result oriented awareness of hormonal and chemical messages that sleep provides.

If anyone were to ask me what is the single most important thing they should be right now to lose fat immediately, short of changing what’s on the end of their fork, I would emphatically respond with a focus on your SLEEP!  This will literally get them in the direction of change overnight.  Even one poor night of sleep you will wake up insulin resistant, which means you’re better at storing fat-  You’re more lepton resistant, making you hungrier- your cortisol goes up, making you store belly fat- your serotonin level go down- urging you to crave sugar.  Bottom line is when you don’t get a good night sleep you don’t feel energized, you don’t want to workout, your immune system is lowered, and you’re craving the need for sugar and caffeine. 

There have been numerous studies shown that with the appropriate amount of 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night, it has proven to reduce fat loss.  Not to mention the powerful and now popular benefits seekers out there in anti-aging and slowing down the aging process, sleep ranks right up there with the top contributors.  So it’s no wonder why I’m an advocate of rest. Recovery, and sleep as a catalyst to all of the fat loss strategies aforementioned. 

It’s not the knowing… it’s the DOING that counts!

THE METABOLIC PATHWAYS

1) Phosphagen System

During short term, intense activities, a large amount of power are produced by the muscle, creating a large demand for energy. The Phosphagen system, also known as the ATP-CP system, is the quickest way to resynthesize ATP. As a muscle contracts a phosphate molecule is broken off of ATP, this breaking of the bond releases energy, leaving ADP behind. Then creatine-phosphate, which is stored in skeletal muscle, donates its phosphate molecule to ADP to produce ATP: ADP + CP - ATP + C. This transaction does not require any carbohydrates or fats in order to happen, relying solely on creatine. Since this does not require oxygen to resynthesize ATP, it is anaerobic, or oxygen-independent. As the fastest energy system, it is predominantly used in exercise lasting up to 10 seconds. Fatigue has a tendency to occur rapidly due to the limited amount of CP stored in skeletal muscle.

This system is important in order to our training method because it is the first 10 seconds of any set. This does get the limiting factor of creatine stored. Therefor the greater demand we can put on the body in the first 10 seconds, through a greater load (strength) or possible volume (HIIT), we can more quickly deplete the stores. In turn allowing us to enter glycolysis sooner in the workout.

2) Glycolysis

Glycolysis is the predominant system used for all-out exercise lasting between 30 seconds - 2 minutes, and is the second fastest way to resynthesize ATP. During Glycolysis, carbohydrates in the form of either blood glucose (sugar) or muscle glycogen (the stored form of glucose) are broken down through a series of chemical reactions to form pyruvate (muscle glycogen must first go through glycogenesis to form glucose). For every molecule of glucose broke down into pyruvate you get two ATP molecules. This is a small amount of energy. The trade off is how quickly this energy comes. Once pyruvate is formed it has two fates: either the conversion to lactate or a metabolic intermediary molecule called acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA), which is transported to the mitochondria for oxidation and the production of more ATP. Lactate is produced when the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply (i.e., during anaerobic exercise). Conversely Acetyl CoA is produced when sufficient oxygen is present to supply the muscles needs it enters the oxidative system. When oxygen is not supplied fast enough a build of hydrogen ions (which causes the muscle PH to change; a condition called acidosis) and other metabolites occurs. Acidosis and these metabolites inhibit certain enzymes, the release of calcium, and interfere with the electrical charge; causing a decrease muscle contraction.

Glycolysis is the principal system we will be utilizing when super-setting exercises and our HIIT training methods. As this system requires the burning of carbs, in the form of blood-glucose and glycogen, to function. The longer we can stay in this path-way the longer we can continue the training session, as well as leading into a "after burn" effect (explained in the anaerobic phase).

 

3) Aerobic System

The Aerobic system is the most complicated system of the three. The metabolic reactions that occur in the presence of oxygen are responsible for most of the energy produced by the body. However, this is the slowest method of resynthesizing ATP. The Aerobic system, which includes the Krebs-cycle and the electron transport chain, uses blood-glucose, glycogen, and fat as fuel to resynthesize ATP in the mitochondria of muscle cells. First glucose and glycogen go through glycolysis. The result is pyruvate which is used to form Acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA then enters the Krebs cycle. The electrons produced here are then transported through the electron transport chain. The result is ATP and water. The result is 36 ATP molecules, 18 times more than that of Glycolysis. Fat, which is stored as triglyceride in adipose tissue underneath and within the muscles themselves, is the other major fuel for the aerobic system. The triglyceride is first broken down into glycerol (through lipolysis), then transported to the mitochondria to where the carbon atom is utilized to produce Acetyl-CoA. From this step on the steps is the same as carbohydrate metabolism.

This is another major component of our training, and the phrase "the after burn" effect. As the subjects levels of ATP are dropped through strenuous exercise, so will the glucose and glycogen levels from our super-sets and HIIT training. This will put a demand on the body to use fat as the fuel source to replenish the lost ATP, increasing the total fat percent loss. 

Our collective experiences and years in the fitness industry have led Us to put to rest the myths and Bro Science that you will find in any Gym, Health Club, Training Center etc.

 

It is Our sincere hope that you follow the advice of your fitness professional but to also educate yourself on what the body in total truly needs.For your consideration.