Besik Luarsabovich Solomonashvili – Russian-Georgian sculptor-artist. His surname is interpreted as “Solomon’s son”, which sounds like the refer to the myths about the wise Tsar. In fact, they really do have something in common: the sculptor is not too extravagant with the unnecessary words, but he is able to realize his thoughts and ideas in a laconic way turning them into another wonderful piece of art.
Besik Luarsabovich Solomonashvili was born on the 24th of December in 1967 in Tbilisi, Georgia. As a child, he was really fond of art, namely from the first visit to the State Fine Arts Museum with his father. The little boy was so amazed that he couldn’t take his eyes off exhibits and was under impression for a long time. That is why Besik’s choice fell on Art school, and after that, he successfully got into Tbilisi Art Academy. After its graduation there was a watershed meeting with the world-famous sculptor-artist, Zurab Konstantinovich Tsereteli, the President of the Russian Academy of Arts, and their creative union still exists.
Under the guidance of Zurab Konstantinovich a great variety of projects was created both for Russia and for the West. To the most famous works we can list the reliefs of the Saint on the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Moscow), the monument “Nations Tragedy” dedicated to the Holocaust victims (Moscow), the monument to Peter the Great (Moscow), the monument “Tear of Grief” dedicated to the victims of the terror attracts on September 11 (New York), the monument to the Beslan Massacre (Moscow). The author is always full of ideas, and there are many incomparable, brilliant projects in the future.
The artists’ creative work is rich in the image of a horse. “A horse is just like Georgia: torn apart, but still breathes” – Besik shares his point of view. His creative work is open to the people of all the cultures and nationalities: Besik is sure that “culture is cosmopolitan, and it cannot be placed into any the frameworks”.
The harmony between a woman and a man is another topic in Besik’s Solomonashvili works. The sculptures “Spirit, soul and body”, “Winged man and woman”, “Wanderers” are the outstanding examples of the harmony that is hidden in the united man and woman energy. Besik’s Solomonashvili is orthodox, and he sets a high value on the traditional family lifestyle.
According to his opinion, a man and a woman are endowed by God with different but both significant high missions: a woman fulfills the space, and a man creates and gives it its direction. The true recognition of the mission creates harmony in the family, on which the whole world is still standing.
“I agree that today technologies develop very rapidly. The Real world is replaced by the virtual one, and this means betrayal of the real, true world, and everything that comes deep from our hearts” – thinks Besik Solomonashvili. The sculptor makes up for it with his creative work, namely what the humanity has lost in the endless technocratic modern rat race, and gives people the chance to see the true beauty of the world.
Besik Luarsabovich Solomonashvili – sculptor-artist, honored participant of the Russian Academy of Arts and the Artist Union of the Russian Federation, CEO of the industrial sculpture enterprise “Monumentskulptura”, Vice-rector of the International Art Academy, Prize Winner of the International Art Aeropagus “Apollo” International Contest in the category “Modern Architecture and Sculpture Aspects” (APOLLO-UNESCO), PhD in Arts (International University of Fundamental Studies).
Written by: Yuliya Andreevna Kalko
Master of Economics (IUFS)
Prof. Jayasekara J.S.K., Grand PhD
Then known as Ceylon, lying in the Indian Ocean, separated from the peninsular India by Palk Strait, also known as Granary in the East and Pearl in the Indian Ocean, is none other than my motherland, SRI LANKA.
This island was once under the Portuguese, Dutch and finally, under the British rule, known as the British Crown Colony of Ceylon and gained independence as a result of tremendous struggles, in the year 1948, although it remained under dominion status. Its 1972 constitution proclaimed it as an independent republic and changed the country’s name. Finally, in 1978, a new constitution officially declared the island as the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka has a great pride of having a history dating back over 3000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years. It is blessed with an excellent geographic location with deep harbors and this made her an effectively active hub from the time of the ancient Silk Road through the Second World War. Also, Sri Lanka’s recent history has been marred by a 30 year civil war which decisively ended when the Sri Lankan Military defeated the Liberation of Tamil Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009.
Since then, Politics, media and journalism has always been a subject interacting very often with the people, in both national and international levels, providing information and updates on every era that has been passed by.
OVERVIEW OF MEDIA AND JOURNALISM IN SRI LANKA
Media of Sri Lanka has always been people-friendly, communicating with them effectively and efficiently throughout every incident, trustworthily.
The media in Sri Lanka can be broadly placed into two categories- those which are owned and controlled by the State and those which are privately owned and controlled, and consists of different types of communication media, such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and the websites. State and private media operators provide services in the main languages, Sinhala, Tamil and English.
The state owns the Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. (Lake House) which has the broadest outreach in terms of distribution networks, and which also benefits from extensive State Advertising. Radio and Television were a government monopoly until the mid 1980s. Since then several privately owned television/radio stations have been established. The State continues to control the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (radio), the Sri Lanka Rupawahini Corporation (television) and ITN radio and television network. The transmission capacities of the Private stations are much more limited than that of the State owned radio and television. Thus, State radio and television remain the electronic Medias that reach the largest number of consumers, especially in far-flung areas of the island.
There are several journalists’ organizations that work for the promotion of their profession. Few among them are the Free Media Movement, Working Journalists’ Association and the Photo-Journalists Association, Editors’ Guild of Sri Lanka, and a Foreign Correspondents’ Association. There are number of trade unions of media workers and the Federation of Media Employee Trade Union (FMETU), which unites all of them. The most active organization in Sri Lanka that advocates and lobbies for the freedom of expression and information is The Free Media Movement (FMM), a grouping of independent journalists and the persons working in different fields in the media.
Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered. The term “media bias” implies a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed.
POLITICS AND JOURNALISM
Politics and Journalism has always been a prominent topic when it comes to governing a country and since then, the society has always shown the curious interconnection between them, as there has been a mysterious interconnection between them since a very long time. Many struggled and wished to stay at one end of both ropes, but such attempts seemed futile while some people have crossed the boundary, dangling both paths more than once. So, It is rather obvious that there is a clear firewall between the two professions.
In a nutshell, the nexus between journalism and politics is divergent. Thus, there has been a growing case of symbiotic relationship between the two. For better outcome, all concerned parties need to define their responsibilities and maintain their niche without transgressing same.
Political journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power.
Political journalism is a frequent subject of opinion journalism, as current political events are analyzed, interpreted, and discussed by news media pundits and editorialists.
Subsets are as follows:
• Election journalism or electoral journalism is a subgenre of political journalism which focuses upon and analyzes developments related to an approximate election and political campaigns. This subgenre makes use of statistics, polls and historic data in regards to a candidate’s chance of success for office, or a party’s change in size in a legislature.
• Defense journalism or military journalism is a subgenre which focuses upon the current status of a nation’s military, intelligence and other defense-related faculties. Interest in defense journalism tends to increase during times of violent conflict, with military leaders being the primary actors.
Journalism is the key route in providing ideas, both, negative and positive into a consumers mind. Most of the people rely exactly on the media as it is the mediator in providing news related to politics, as it is discussed here. Hence, journalists have an immense responsibility in transmitting the exactly accurate relevant news to the public.
A very prominent point to emphasize is that media and journalism should be unbiased to the core. The officials responsible, from the top to the bottom should have an idea that they are handling a great big responsibility and should work avoiding any attempts to obtain bribe and should be fearless of the threatening that may come across or any other convincing. Mediators should not be hesitant to speak out the truth.
According to the information I collected upon my researches, a very unfortunate situation in the present is, the politicians often misusing their power. Many incidents are reported that the politicians offer bribes and handle the media units as their own property, almost buying the entire network, if simply said. They make the media units transmit their own supporting programs and news, avoiding any illegal acts performed or hiding the truth. This can be very disastrous as it fools the consumers, breaking their trust on the media and providing fraud/false information.
Hence, it is a major responsibility of the media units to be unbiased and to be fearless, straightforward.
JOURNALISM ETHICS AND STANDARDS
Also known as “Canons of Journalism” it comprises of the set of code of ethics or rules that a journalist should adhere to, by professional journalism associations and individual print, broadcast and online news organizations. Most common elements include truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, timeliness, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, etc.
A very important ethic which should definitely be followed by the journalists is the ethic, “Limitation of Harm.” This includes the withholding of certain details from reports such as the names of minor children, crime victims’ names or information not materially related to particular news report release of which might harm someone’s reputation.
Taste, decency and acceptability also play a major role when it comes to ethics and standards. Audiences have different reactions to depictions of violence, nudity, coarse language, or to people in any other situation that is unacceptable to or stigmatized by the local culture or laws.
When certain distasteful or shocking material is considered important to the story, there are a variety of common methods for mitigating negative audience reaction. Advance warning of explicit or disturbing material may allow listeners or readers to avoid content they would rather not be exposed to. Offensive words may be partially obscured or bleeped. Potentially offensive images may be blurred or narrowly cropped. Descriptions may be substituted for pictures; graphic detail might be omitted. Disturbing content might be moved from a cover to an inside page, or from daytime to late evening, when children are less likely to be watching. The above ethics play a major role while communicating with the world.
SKILLS AND ABILITIES OF A J OURNALIST
Top-notch communication skills are mandatory for journalists. Polished verbal communication skills and perfect written communication skills to demonstrate with excellent grammar and spellings are the key roots in communicating effectively and accurately.
Journalists spend a lot of time researching subjects using a wide range of sources, so knowledge of electronic databases and archiving system is helpful. Practice in using the modern technology such as computer software, cameras and recorders can make the job easier.
Quick thinking skills, adopting to new situations, being comfortable with the people, ability to conduct interviews, being patient when dealing with different personalities, politeness, logic, ability to judge a potential story using critical thinking skills, etc can be considered as a few essential abilities a proper qualified journalist should possess.
JOURNALISM IN SRI LANKA
But, it is very unfortunate to say that when it comes to online media such as e-newspapers and other news websites in Sri Lanka, we may often come across situations where neither censoring graphics nor abusive/unsuitable language is made. Or simply, where the code of ethics is not followed to the dot.
This may be caused due to the lack of knowledge of the green journalists, new to the field, who have not been through the codes of ethics and other necessary requirements to become a journalist. It is sad to say that most of the so called “Journalists” have no proper picture on how journalism works and the responsibilities of it. Improper handling of journalism can lead to destructive results.
The following can be considered as key factors to improve the skills in journalism, to become a successful journalist:
• Multimedia storytelling skills – Producing slideshows with sound, shooting and editing video and photos, writing for the web.
• Data and statistical skills for storytelling. Collecting, editing, analyzing and interpreting data to produce compelling interactive maps and graphics.
• Audience development skills (formerly known as marketing and circulation) such as managing online communities, interpreting data on audience behavior, crowd sourcing for information, interacting with the audience.
• Basics of programming. How to create compelling pages that attract web audiences.
• The business of media. Journalists can help a news organization generate revenues without compromising their ethics, and today that skill is more important than ever.
• Tight writing. The ultimate aim of journalism should be to tell a story as clearly and concisely as possible. It should be short, sweet and to the point.
IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON JOURNALISM
With the growing use of social media to report news the consumer perception of real time news is changing – people now expect to receive news instantaneously and expect constant updates of developments. This is significantly influencing the direction and practice of journalism. The availability of these online blogs and social media networks has changed the way that journalists are able to operate and it can be a valuable tool aiding journalists in their newsgathering, audience engagement and it can act as another platform for content.
It is important to note that social media and blogs are not replacing journalism, but they are adding another layer of information to existing news sources. One key way that social media has changed how journalists approach the news is through helping journalists in newsgathering and crowd sourcing. This has helped them to collect more material on news stories and has provided access to a wider range of voices that are able to tell their own stories and opinions on the matter.
Social media also helps journalists to source eyewitnesses quickly, as people are keen to tweet or post about interesting things they have witnessed to tell their friends about what they saw. This can be a significant benefit making it easier for journalists to track down those who might have a first-hand account of an event.
Watchdog journalism informs the public about goings-on in institutions and society, especially in circumstances where a significant portion of the public would demand changes in response. This might involve:
• Fact-checking statements of public officials
• Interviewing public figures and challenging them with problems or concerns
• Beat reporting to gather information from meetings members of the public might not otherwise attend, and to observe “on the ground” in broader society
• Investigative journalism, which involves information-gathering on a single story for a long period of time
Like a literal guard dog that barks when it notices an intruder, a “watchdog” role involves alerting others when a problem is detected. Common subjects are the government decision-making process, illegal activity, immorality, consumer protection issues, and environmental degradation.
Watchdog journalism can be located in a variety of news media, such as radio, television, Internet, and print media where it may be seen as “a unique strength of newspapers”, and additional new media and concepts such as weblogs and citizen journalism. Watchdog journalists also are called “watchmen”, “agents of social control”, or “moral guardians”.
Hence, considering all the knowledge I’ve gathered so far and on what’s mentioned above, wish to conclude that Politics, Media and Journalism are the three roots of communication, which are interrelated and play a major role in the society globally, to obtain an understanding on the country’s situation, its progress, the governing party’s strengths, weaknesses, and hence can be used to determine the future of the country, to establish a successive, fruitful and outstanding motherland if properly handled, unbiased.
“ISOTONICS” SUBSTANTIAL AESTHETICS AS NEW AESTHETICS OF THE XXIST CENTURY (THEORY, PRACTICE, AND EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION)
The access to the Aesthetic Field of the new Substantial Aesthetics requires mastering the higher spiritual harmony, which is one of the main substantial properties of the all-essence. This allowed to discover, for the first time in the world, the spiritual substance of the Absolute, and to further specify the substance of its properties. For the first time in the aesthetics of the world civilization, we managed to provide an answer to the following questions “What an AESTHETIC FIELD is?”, “What an AESTHETIC QUALITY is?”, “What a WORK OF ART is?” (For example, a Work of Art is an Aesthetic Quality expressed is an art form), “What STYLE is?”, as well as define the concepts of “Worthiness”, “Value” and “Price” of a Work of Art.
Alexander Baumgarten fundamentally defined aesthetics as a gnoseological and a sensory state, thus limiting the Beautiful to the perception of the person. For Baumgarten, the Beautiful is a stage in the cognition of the sensory. For Hegel, it is a qualitative, spiritual compensation of the materiality. The deep understanding of the spiritual essence and the recognition of the aesthetic quality as the substantial property of the all-essence allowed to define the structural features of the Beauty and its substance within Harmony, Higher Spiritual Harmony, and also approximate to the substantial spiritual qualities of the Absolute.
I have explored the subject since 2006, and my first article was entitled “The Black Square in the Aesthetic Field”. It was followed by a series of articles that were presented at International Congresses and published as parts of their Collected Articles, as well as the Collected Articles of the Philosophical Faculty of Saint-Petersburg State University and the Saint-Petersburg Philosophical Society. Departing from these ideas, I have invented a new style of graphic art called Substantialism based on the idea of gradual discovery in tie of the figurative and spiritual substance of the all-essence, on the affirmation and expression of the Light as the source and the refuge of the Present, the Past and the Future, on quantum-bearing, figurative and logical, soliton-holographic form. I have created the artistic symbol of the XXI century. It was presented to the public at the Anniversary Conference on the occasion of 100 years of Kazimir Malevich, the author of “The Black Square” that took place in Saint-Petersburg. My symbol has the name of the “White Quantum”. So they have met, the two symbols of the XX and the XXI century respectively, the “Black Square” and the “White Quantum”. I would like to offer this new symbol, the “White Quantum” to the Civilization, to the XXI century, to my city of Kamenets-Podolsk which has the Sun for its coats-of-arms and wherein the rays of Light the artistic images were first unveiled for me.
July 20, 2016
Bykova T, PhD
7th International Scientific Congress, Geneva, September 5-6, 2016
Throughout the world, the service industry and the economy of intellectual products is developing. In Russia, and in Saint-Petersburg in particular, this development is very active, that is why their role in the social production and the interest in their evolution are on the rise.
The scientific research has been stirred up by the dramatic changes in the political and socio-economic situation of the modern Russia, which reached all social strata, public establishments, state structure, government system, economy and culture.
The decentralization and the transfer of the cultural institutions to the modern management standards have brought up the issues of elaborating a new methodology and new principles for the management in the cultural sphere. The variety of cultural actors and of the existing legal forms of incorporation and types of ownership confirm that the cultural sphere is a specific and rather well-developed branch of the economic system which requires the application of multiple methods and ways of attracting companies and creative individuals into the state system of economic relations.
If we take into account the demand for the cultural activities in the region, as well as a certain number of possible culture consumers, then the need of building a new method for financing the cultural sphere becomes obvious.
The modern financial science lacks a defined methodology for managing budgetary and other costs of cultural development, and the issues of controlling the finances allocated for the cultural sphere have not yet been resolved.
In the current situation, a transfer from the purely management and distribution approach in the cultural sphere to a wider application of economic methods has become topical: we should abandon the financing system based on subsidies from the budget only in the favour of financing specific programs and projects, of competing for the budgetary funds, and of attracting larger non-budgetary funds.
Despite the considerable peculiarities of the cultural sphere originating from its non-for-profit approach and a high level of social value, the shaping of a new management and financing mechanism must take into account the transfer to a mixed-type economy. The market management model is insufficient for the realization of public interests, demands and expectations related to the cultural activities. We must find different business forms, management methods and mechanisms that would combine the elements of market and non-market governing.
It should be noted that the economics of culture is still undergoing the process of shaping as a science. In the past years, insufficient attention has been given to the problem of management, while the high level of centralization and the priority of sectoral approach have been justified.
In Saint-Petersburg, the culture is the central element in the urban structure; it assures the social stability and the harmonization of the international and interdenominational relationships, as well as encourages the development of the creative potential, the spiritual evolution of the personality and of the society in general.
Culture contributes considerably to the economic recovery of the city through creation of real jobs, attracting investment and assisting the development of new sectors, cultural tourism and creative industries.
Saint-Petersburg is a cultural centre of international importance, which has 5,830 cultural monuments. The city also possesses a well-developed network of cultural institutions: museums, theatres, libraries, and exhibition and concert halls.
It is thanks to the Hermitage Museum, the Mariinskiy Theatre, the Russian National Library, the Russian Museum, Peter-and-Paul Fortress, the Small Drama Theatre, and St. Isaac Cathedral that Saint-Petersburg is one of the top ten world tourist destinations.
The entire historical centre of Saint-Petersburg is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Thus, the culture is a strategic potential of the development of Saint-Petersburg as a European-standard multifunctional city integrated in the Russian and the world economy.
Saint-Petersburg International Festival “All Together Opera”
The idea of the festival was born in 2012. In 2016, the Festival was held for the 5th time. It brings the masterpieces of the Russian and foreign opera classics to the wide public. The Festival’s director and main creator is Yuliya Strizhak, its musical director is Fabio Mastrangelo (Russia-Italy) and its artistic director is Victor Vysotskiy.
Russian culture, inter alia, may be proud of a grand national opera tradition that was formed in the 19th century and that rivals today international opera traditions. By now, opera has completed a specific cycle of historical development, evolving from a high-class court art through the popular stage and back to become once more an elitary genre that interests people brought up to love classical art. Opera art has always been opposed to the mass genres of popular music, which appealed to a rather shallow understanding of the world and disabled the person’s perceptibility of high culture, thus impoverishing their spiritual life.
The mission of the festival “All Together Opera” is to encourage the meeting of the wide pubic with the best creations of the human mind. This becomes possible through opera, because opera is the most popular musical art by the number of tools available to it. Opera means choirs, soloists and orchestra. Opera can impact visually. Besides, the opera genre has its own hits, which, if made available, can conquer people’s hearts. The European practice and the yet faint tendency at the main central television channels which hold opera singers competitions allow to assume that the purpose of the festival may be one day achieved.
This festival (hereinafter – the Project) involves several innovative tools:
- The festival “All Together Opera” holds its performances outside of the pompous theatre halls in the parks and squares of Saint-Petersburg. The most beautiful architectural ensembles of the city become the sets for the operas. The façades and the urban spaces are selected for every opera piece, and additional sets emphasize the beauty of the environment.
- The sets are made for one performance and are only used once.
- Each year, a new performance stage appears.
- The Festival is social oriented, that is why the entrance to all events is free.
- The Festival lasts for 2 weeks and holds about 4 performances of completely different opera pieces.
- Each performance engages young talented soloists which are not widely known to the public.
- Besides, foreign singers and conductors are invited in the view of a closer collaboration in the cultural sphere and the exchange of professional experience.
The Project is split into several blocks:
- The management and organizational block is engaged in:
- – searching for potential sponsors for the Festival
- – monitoring Russian and foreign cultural agendas
- – continuous monitoring of legislative and regulatory changes
- – monitoring and analysis of economic situation in the region
- – maintaining the contact with Saint-Petersburg Committee for Culture
- – looking for additional financing in the form of grants, subsidies, etc.
- – agreeing the Festival with all the services of the city administration (Committee for the Issues of Legality, Public Order and Safety, Committee for Healthcare, Ministry of Emergencies, Committee for State Control, Use and Preservation of Historical and Cultural Monuments, State Inspectorate for Traffic Safety, and Committee for Urban Development)
- – controlling all the other blocks of the Festival
- – financial control and reporting at the end of the Festival
- – artistic reporting at the end of the Festival
- Directing and production block is engaged in:
- – selection of performances
- – selection of soloists and choir signers and the orchestra
- – rehearsals period
- – stage setting for the performances
- PR-service is engaged in:
- – continuous support of the Festival’s image
- – issuing press- and post-releases of the Festival
- – information support through the radio, television and Internet resources
- – paper advertisements (printed products: posters, booklets, programs, flyers, invitations), video commercials, radio commercials
- – online broadcasting of the performances on TV and Internet resources.
- Printing block is engaged in:
- – preparing layout for printed products
- – printing posters, booklets, programs, flyers and invitations
- Technical block is engaged in:
- – preparation of the scenery
- – making of the costumes
- – providing musical instruments
- – installing stage, video and sound equipment
- – security measures
- – providing the performance areas with WCs
- – furnishing seats, raincoats (in case of rain), and tents
At the first stage, numerous problems arose, both financial and organizational. The organizers never expected to reunite such a large public at the performances. However, the very first performances proved that the Project was in high demand. More than 5,000 people can assist one performance. Today, the Festival even has a fan group. In the following years, some changes were introduced in the conditions for setting the performance sites. Only wide spaces were considered, such as the Maslyany Meadow in front of Elagin Palace, the Cathedral Square of Peter-and-Paul Fortress, etc. In addition, special screens were installed for online broadcasting of the events in TV shows and at Internet resources. The Festival has also developed its proper traditions: the opening of the Festival takes place on July 12, on the feast day of prime Apostles Sts. Peter and Paul, at the Cathedral Square of Peter-and-Paul Fortress, when a classical Russian opera is performed.
The Project has been originally financed form the regional budget.
With each year, the Festival gains in popularity, and finds new sponsors.
Each performance engages more than 3,000 staff, including 120 artistic staff, the rest being technical and maintenance staff. Undoubtedly, such projects have a full-scale synergic effect for the economy of the city and the country as a whole, for they are additional events that attract tourists and city residents.
Russian and foreign experience in holding opera festivals:
– Arena di Verona, Italy. The Arena as a theatrical performance is not only an entertainment, but also a solution to the unemployment problem: thus, the transfer of the sets for “Norma” required two trucks and a week of time; fifteen people were engaged in turning the wheel in “Othello”; both people and animals made their living in “Carmen”.
The Arena is, first of all, an economic, and only then a musical event: in the summer period the open-air theatre creates profit for hotel, restaurant and bar owners, tourist agencies, airlines and bus fleets. The profits from the sale of tickets covers more than 60% of costs related to the staging of the performances, which is in fact a sort of economic miracle (for comparison, in La Scala theatre, this figure is but 21%). Without any doubt, the Verona festival has already made its place in the history of cultural tourism of the 20th century as one of the most large-scale events.
– Bayreuth festival – annual Wagner music festival held in the Festspielhaus opera theatre in Bayreuth in Bavaria (Germany). This is the world’s only opera theatre that was constructed specifically for staging Richard Wagner’s operas only.
The theatre hall holds 1,800 people. It is an amphitheatre topped by a gallery. It has nine boxes, one of which was meant for the royal family, and the other – for the highest aristocracy and VIP guests.
– The International Bach festival in Leipzig has become a well-recognized event in the world, standing out among other festivals commemorating the same composer. This has been possible not only because of the scale of the program and the quality of organization, but also thanks to the very special atmosphere of the city of Leipzig. In this city only, the concert program dedicated to the works of Bach may get a most authentic presentation. Numerous performances are held in the places connected with the name of Sebastian Bach and marked by the musical tradition.
– The objective of the International Diaghilev Festival is supporting and developing the traditions initiated by Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev, the eminent impresario and promoter of Russian culture. It is not a coincidence that Tchaikovsky Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Perm was at the origin of the first Diaghilev festival in Russia. It was in Perm that Sergei Diaghilev spent his childhood; the only in the world House-Museum of the internationally renowned impresario is situated in Perm. The very building of the Perm Opera Theatre was constructed thanks to a considerable financial support of the Diaghilevs family.
The uniqueness of the Perm festival consists not only in its venue, but also in its multi-genre character. The versatile creative activity of Sergei Diaghilev encompassing opera and ballet theatre, music, pictorial art and printing was taken as the structure for this festival and is represented through a series of artistic events and scientific research symposia.
– The International Music Festival in Salzburg (Austria) has operas on its program together with music concerts. Since 1877, music festivals in the name of Mozart have been held in Salzburg. In 1917, an artistic board was established (with Hoffmansthal, R. Strauss and others on the board), which prepared the festival of 1920. Since then, the festivals were held annually. They take place in the grand festival palace (2,160 seats, built in 1960).
– Moscow Easter Festival established by the initiative of maestro Valery Gergiev and the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, has almost immediately gained an important position in the cultural life of Russia. The festival, which was blessed in May 2002 by the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Aleksiy II, has evolved over years from a local festival into a national event.
In ten years, this musical festival has gained the reputation of one of the most recognized and important musical event in Russia and in Europe and has expanded to the international scale. Within the festival, the religious holiday and a ceremonial secular celebration marry happily. Besides, the charitable, educational and, later, regional aspects turned this festival into a unique all-Russian event.
– Opera Festival in Savonlinna is the oldest opera festival in Finland that has been organized annually since 1912 and held in St. Olaf’s Fortress (Olavinlinna) in Savonlinna, which was built back in 1475. The castle, which welcomes visitors throughout the year, is located on an island in the middle of the town of Savonlinna. Every summer a covered stage and an auditorium of 2,000 persons capacity are erected in the courtyard of the fortress specially for the event. A uniquely designed awning covers the main courtyard, and the fortress becomes a theatre for the days of the Opera Festival. Annually, the awning is put up anew, and the state allocated more than 300,000 euros for this. Gradually, the Savonlinna opera festival is turning into a recognized international forum. Annually, it brings together 60,000 spectators, a quarter of the number are foreigners. Typically, the festival presents 5-6 local performances and a week-long tour of the invited foreign opera theatres that alternate during one month. The operas are performed in the original languages, and subtitles in English and in Finnish are broadcasted on a display.
The opera festival in Savonlinna is the most well-known Finnish event at the international level; it is one of the trademarks of the country.
– International Opera Festival of Fyodor Ivanovich Chaliapin is the oldest festival in the former Soviet states: no other opera festival in Russia could boast a longer history. The festival was established in 1982 in Kazan, the hometown of the renowned Russian bass Fyodor Ivanovich Chaliapin. The idea of the festival belongs to the director of the Tatar Opera Theatre Rafaul Mukhametzyanov. In 1985, the festival acquired all-Russian status, in 1991, in was presented at the international stage.
The idea and the structure of the International Chaliapin Opera Festival have remained unaltered throughout its long existence. The festival has its own traditions: international stars, signers of the world’s best theatres are invited to participate in the program; latest new productions of the Theatre, as well as operas from Chaliapin’s repertoire are included in the program; new, unknown signers who have never before performed in Kazan are invited. Each festival is traditionally completed with Gala-concerts with the international opera stars.
The importance of Saint-Petersburg International Opera Festival “All Together Opera” in the cultural life of the city is doubtless. Form the economic point of view, this project is a space for action, within which various organizations are engaged in creating tangible and intangible goods that satisfy certain cultural, spiritual and leisure demands of the people, regardless of their profession. The project reunites a network of actors which exercise various types of cultural activities and realize their interests within it.
The analysis of the modern state of the cultural sphere and of the influence of the economic changes on the processes, tendencies and perspectives of development of the cultural sphere, leads to a conclusion that culture reacts intensively to the socio-economic changes. The specific elements of the cultural life find their expression at two levels: at the global level, that is, on the scale of the entire country, and at the regional level of a particular region, district or city, where they have a more pronounced character. It is at the regional level, that a system of priorities for cultural development must be formed, where cultural policy must be shaped so that it combines harmoniously the global trends with the local specific character. The expedience of such approach is justified by the following conclusions: first, regional factors are mostly defining for culture; second, at the regional level, an optimal program of cultural development is possible, based on the regional specific character and the local potential (institutional, financial, and human); third, it is at the regional level that the highest degree of engagement of various social groups in the cultural processes and in public life in general is achieved.
Based on the foregoing, we may talk about a system of cultural management, composed of two interdependent blocks: state governing through subordination relation, and horizontal management. Unlike the governing, the management has a more pronounced applied character and denotes a process that assures the integration and a more efficient use of the material and human resources of an organization with the view of reaching its goals.
The achievement of the goals within the system of the cultural sphere is, on the one hand, due to the management structure, and, on the other hand, to the goals reached at each of its levels. The key issue is the selection of methods and taking into account the specific historical conditions of the changes introduced in the economic mechanism of cultural management.
The state-level objective consists in elaboration a legislation that would define the rules and the regulations for the behavior of the management actors. An efficient state management of the cultural sphere is possible through a systematic and logically structured approach to all elements of the cultural sphere.