By Dr. Pushpa Veerappan, Professor
Acoustics becomes much more complicated in indoor situations because sound energy has less volume in which to dissipate. Sound paths become more complicated as well. Any sound energy introduced into an enclosed space is subject to an almost infinite combination of modifiers, such as absorption, reflection, and summation. The relative proportions of each modifier can vary widely according to the listener location, with a corresponding effect on acoustical measurements.
Sound in a room is basically affected by two types of physical structures. The overall acoustics are influenced by room boundaries such as ceilings, floors and walls. Inconsistencies in the sound field can be created by in-room barriers,
Examples of room barriers would include large HVAC ducts, dividers, curtains, and balcony fronts.
As shown in the diagrams, three things happen simultaneously and in varying proportions when sound strikes a boundary; transmission, absorption, and reflection. The proportion in which each happens is a function of the boundary material, size, mounting methodology, and the angle at which the sound strikes the boundary. Since we know that wavelength is a function of frequency, we might guess that the size of the boundary will have some effect on the frequencies reflected. All energy that is not reflected is either absorbed by the boundary and converted to heat, or passes through the boundary and is transmitted out the other side. Transmission and Absorption are frequency-selective. The mass, size, and density of the panel all affect the reflected, absorbed and transmitted spectrums.
Diagram 1-15 shows a side view of a specialized diffuser panel. The size of the indentations on the panel and the frequency response of the reflected energy is a result of a fairly complex correlation between the two. Acousticians use variations of this panel’s response-shaping reflective and diffusive capabilities to deliberately scatter certain frequencies in rooms such as recording studios and auditoriums.
The Reverberation Time Equation.
One popular acoustical treatment is absorption. Wallace Sabine, derived the relationship between boundary surfaces, room volume, mean free path (the average distance of sound before it strikes a boundary) and reverberation time.
The unit of absorption is named the “sabin” in honor of Dr. Sabine. His work is the foundation for modern acoustics. His equations have been modified since 1898 to allow for the effects of parallel surfaces and uneven absorption, but the original expression of the equation remains the standard for reverberation calculations.
A special set of problems arises when the room has unusual boundaries, such as a curved ceiling or a curved wall. This is particularly true in domed rooms. Domes may be thought of as boundaries curved in two dimensions.
Diffraction and Dispersion.
In addition to having reflective boundaries, a room may also have barriers that reflect, transmit, diffract, or disperse sound.
The determining factor is the frequency of the sound (which means its wavelength) in comparison to the size of the barrier. If the frequency wavelength is large in relation to the barrier, the waves will go around the barrier. If the barrier has a dimension facing the sound source that is equal to the wavelength, then the sound diffracts around the edges of the object. The exact behavior of the sound is dependent upon the angle of incidence and the shape of the barrier. When the barrier is larger than the wavelength, an acoustic shadow may result.
When sound strikes a large barrier that has an opening smaller than the wavelength of the sound the opening acts like a re-radiator of sound to the space on the other side of the barrier. The dispersion of the sound is inversely proportional to the size of the opening. This is one reason why the smallest opening between adjacent performance spaces can transmit and disperse much more sound than seems possible.
Under certain conditions, the reflected sound of a solid boundary can combine with the original sound to form a standing wave. In order for this to happen, the wave’s peak amplitudes (positive and negative values) must synchronize in physical space to create a stationary pattern of peak pressures and rarefaction. The reflected wave’s superimposition on the original signal is similar to a situation where two of signals are exactly in phase. In the case of standing waves, the reflective boundary is the second “source.”
As we might suspect, standing waves in rooms are a product of frequency wavelengths that bear some exact relationship to the major room dimensions. A 125 Hz tone would have a wavelength of over 9 feet, and would create a standing wave between any two major parallel walls that were multiples of 9 feet apart. A room with dimensions of 27 feet by 45 feet by 18 feet high would create standing waves of 125 Hz in many directions if the walls were reflective at that frequency.
This 125 Hz wave would manifest itself in pressure zones and null points. A listener standing in a maximum pressure area would hear exaggerated bass at 125 Hz, while a listener at the null point would hear very little sound at the same frequency. Exact multiples of 125 Hz, such as 250 Hz, 375 Hz, 500 Hz, etc, will also generate standing waves. Many performance spaces and control rooms are non-rectangular in order to reduce standing waves.
Axial modes tend to be the strongest because the reflective path is the shortest in relation to room size, and because two opposing surfaces are firing reflections at each other. Common axial modes would be between end walls, side walls, and the pair of floor-ceiling. This assumes that each set is composed of parallel pairs. Room modes are functions of the relationships between room dimensions and frequency wavelengths
The Haas or precedence effect
It is used by sound system designers when a supplemental time-delay loudspeaker must be used to overcome adverse acoustics or blockage of the main speaker. This effect considers the ears inability to determine the location of a sound from two sources if it arrives at the ear close to the same time. For example, listeners under a balcony are sometimes not in a direct line-of-sight path of the overhead stage speakers, with the result that the high frequencies and intelligibility are both reduced for these listeners. The solution to this problem is to put speakers under the balcony, with the same signal as the main speakers, but with a time delay slightly longer than the time it takes for the main speaker energy to arrive under the balcony. By increasing the delay time of the remote speaker signal up to 20 milliseconds over the acoustic signal from the main cluster, the level of the remote speaker may be raised up to 10 dB above the main speaker level without the listeners being aware of the signal as coming from the remote speakers. High frequencies, and intelligibility, are restored with the use of these speakers.
The ultimate design objective for most sound systems is the transmission of spoken information in such a way that the listeners understand every word. The degree to which this is accomplished is called the intelligibility percentage of the system. It is equal to the percentage of words a large group of randomly seated listeners would get correct on a standardized word-list test broadcast over the sound system. Sound system power, noise, distortion, frequency response and loudspeaker radiation characteristics can affect the intelligibility scores as much or more than the acoustical environment. Acoustical factors affecting intelligibility include ambient and crowd noise, early decay rate, reverberation, reflections, adjacent speaker interference, and intrusive sounds from outside the immediate area.
Perhaps the simplest and most widely used prediction method for intelligibility, was developed by a Dutch acoustician, V.M.A. Peutz, as a result of extensive word tests involving listeners at varying distances in a series of rooms with different reverberation times. Peutz found that intelligibility decreases with increasing source-to-listener distance up to the critical distance, after which it remains constant. The %ALCONS method (Articulation Loss of Consonants) calculates the number of consonants that will be misunderstood under specified conditions. Two predictive equations were developed, for distances less than or more than critical distance. The simplest form of the first is given below. In the real world, there are several more terms in the equation that deal with the amount of total loudspeaker array power reaching the listener and any special architectural (acoustic or electroacoustic) modifiers.
Intelligibility and Critical Distance.
The critical distance is the point at which the direct field from the loudspeaker equals the reverberant field produced by the room. Moving farther away from the loudspeaker the reverberant field stays constant, but intelligibility does not. Depending on the room, intelligibility may drop to unacceptable levels at between two and three times the critical distance from the loudspeakers. Rooms with long reverberation times (above 1.6 seconds in the bass and midbands) exhibit a more rapid falloff of intelligibility beyond the critical distance.
As a practical matter, the experienced sound system designer recognizes two realities: Critical distance is affected by two factors, one being the directivity of the loudspeaker and the other being the absorption of the room. It is much less expensive in most cases to increase the directivity of the loudspeakers and keep the sound away from reflective sources than it is to remodel the room. Critical distance changes with frequency, like reverberation time and the coverage angles of loudspeakers. A successful sound system design takes into account all three variables.
Any sort of sustained auditory interference from something not the original signal is called masking. Sources of masking may be air conditioners, air ducts, machinery noise, traffic, and so on. Since the most important intelligibility information is contained in the 2 kHz octave band, masking noise containing a significant amount of energy around 2 kHz will cause worsening of intelligibility as the noise level approaches the output level of the sound system.
As seen, enclosed spaces may create complex acoustic environments with equally complex sound fields. The idea is to control the above phenomena by considering the shape of the rooms and their finishing materials, in order to produce an acceptable acoustical environment in that given space.
|Ivan Katkov, PhD.
Summary: the article outlines the issue of social-spiritual activities of young civil servants. The author proposes to consider the youth subculture as a significant element of society’s culture and as an indicator of its condition and renewal mechanism. The results of the research can be applied to the process of organizational culture design of the civil service.
The author specifies such concepts as socialization, gradual socialization and subculture. The functions of the youth subculture are characterized which provides ground for further functional analysis of this phenomenon.
Keywords: culture, subculture, youth subculture, social institutions.
Socio-scientific investigation of youth subcultures started in the mid-60s of the XX century in England (Center of contemporary cultural researches) and in the USA (Sociological University of Chicago) on the stream of studying youth deviation, place and role of youth subcultures in contemporary society culture. Later the scientists began to take youth cultures with a broader meaning differentiating them in accordance with the social activity spheres and social strata. Modern conceptions of scientific cognition more often take them as an important element of society culture.
With all the richness of its forms and types of culture acts as a regulator of social processes not only in society but also in social institutions, the basis of their stable functioning. One of the types of current interest is organizational culture. It regulates relations within the organization on the basis of stable norms, rules, principles, positive and negative behavior patterns. Carriers of the organizational culture of public service are the employees themselves, whose moral qualities determine its status and the vector of further development.
In sociology theory culture is considered as a system. According to Pitirim Sorokin, as far as culture is not a complete holistic unity, it can be decomposed into its component elements forming the system integrity [Sorokin, 1992. P.20]. For half a century this idea was being actively developed by scientists.
As a result of researches subculture was highlighted as a significant element of cultural structure. However, still there is no generally accepted model of interaction between subcultures and society culture. The author makes an attempt to formulate the concept of subculture and a number of its specific functions as a dedicated part of the culture.
This subculture is seen as a set of ideas, values, beliefs inherent for a small social group necessary for its positioning in relation to other subcultures and culture in general. It inherits some of the values of its parent culture within which it originated. These values form the spiritual basis of the subculture and determinate future values of a specific stream representatives. Entering into a common culture, subculture also takes part in the implementation of its functions and specific functions. Further differentiation is made on the basis of values, value orientations and ways of their implementation to represent a specific youth subcultures.
- The indicator function of subculture is expressed in terms of the indicator of the state of public spheres (economic, political, spiritual). The very subculture does not reflect fully the depth of what is happening in society processes. However, the emergence of new subcultures or any changes in the status of such provide a signal reflecting changes in society. For example, the emergence of radical and extremist youth subcultures indicates that there are problems of self-realization and satisfaction of their spiritual needs in the context of generally accepted social norms. Young people are looking for new ways to develop their potential, including marginal examples of behavior.
As shown by author’s research, at the present time, according to 66,6% of the respondents, the problem of the existence of extremist and radical youth subcultures is important and requires urgent measures to deal with it: 31.4% agreed with the existence of the problem, but they do not find any situation requiring prompt intervention by the state*.
- Self-identity function is expressed through the group membership of the carrier of a certain subculture. As it is known, self-realization is the highest level of socialization, achieved due to its value-orientations such as spiritual, political, and social institutions. Since youth is the most socially active part of society in search of the ways for self-realization, it appeals to all available social organization that can satisfy this need.
Young people take a more active part in the political life of the country. An increasing number of youth political movements is the foundation for the emergence of youth political subcultures.
- Gradual socialization function is the process of assimilation of the required amount of spiritual values for the implementation of social life and activity, allowing you to contribute your personal potential through a certain subculture. Gradual socialization is expressed in the formation of new values, contributing to the further development of the individual. It involves, in particular, increasing of responsibility for their actions.
Positioning himself as a representative of any youth subculture is associated with entry into the social, political and economic relations, which is impossible without a certain level of responsibility and independence. The native youth subcultures different integrated into these relationships. Some subcultures are available only to youth with high material or spiritual level of development, while others are delinquent and marginalized.
Society largely focuses on marginalized youth subculture which is resulting in public opinion about the low spiritual level of their representatives.
- Positioning function of the individual contributes to the orientation of the representatives of subcultural trends in the sphere of social relations. In this case, the values are beacons on the basis of which the individual builds relationships and develops personal position in the social institutions and processes. Thus, the function contributes to both group and individual positioning of individuals united by common values regarding social norms, defining further the overall vector of socialization.
- Value rotation function is a subculture regardless of its form as the update mechanism of culture, protecting it from stagnation. Born subculture brings new values, gradually assimilate them. Over time, this leads to their dissolution in the conventional and well-established moral values norms and consciousness of individuals, enabling the rotation values.
As historical experience shows, subcultural ideas formed and established in the form of subcultural values and attitudes still exist in the form of ” ideas sputtered in the air”, which under the influence of social conditions can develop in new subcultural trends. The state should take into account this property subculture the development of state youth policy.
Youth subcultures, being a special kind of subcultures, perform a number of specific functions, namely:
– the adaptive function. Adaptation in society occurs through the adoption of social status, alleged by subcultures;
– organizational function. Youth subcultures unite young people in order to combat external “aggressors” seeking to impose their will;
- buffer function. Youth subcultures are a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood. Here subcultures appear in the form of a kind of niches that enables young people to realize themselves in a new status, thus is constant socialization of youth;
- value-translational. Youth subcultures translate the values of the parent culture among the youth subcultural trends.
Most of young government civil servants under the age of 30 years have a system of values and value orientations, a formed personal position in relation to other subcultures and cultures. Thus they organize youth subculture of civil servants of different directions.
Youth subcultures, according to Levtova S.I., implementing their functions, represent a very important mechanism that protects society from social explosions [Levikova, 2002. P. 150].
Culture is the basis of any social organizational activities. Developed with the contemporary requirements of the organizational culture of the state civil service is a necessary condition for a successful and constructive dialogue between civil society and authorities. Knowledge about the nature of functioning of subcultures within the organizational culture of the state civil service provides an in-depth analysis of its spiritual condition and helps to predict future trends for change in the civil service reform.
Levikova S.I. The phenomenon of youth subculture. Dr. filos. Sci. diss. Moscow: Moscow state pedagogical university, 2002, 358 p.
Mankheim K. Selected: the culture sociology. Moscow: St. Peterburg, 2000.
Parsons T. About the structure of social action. Moscow, 2000.
Rutkevich M.N. The social structure. Moskow, 2004.
Sorokin P.A. Person. Civilization. Society. Moscow, 1992, 544 p.
Toshchenko Zh.T. Sociology thesaurus. Thematic dictionary. Moscow, 2009.
Turchinov A.I., Magometov K.O., Kononenko T.A. The sociological analysis of problems of personal policy and human resource management in the Russian organizations. Moscow, 2010.
Uledov A.K. Spiritual life of society. The problems of methodlogy of research. Moscow, 1980.
Youth subcultures. What to read?
|The basics of working with the youth. Textbook, Moscow: Alpha-M, 2013. 219 p.
||The book examines the situation of youth as a social group of the Russian population. Such directions of youth policy are disclosed as health, development of physical culture and sports, prevention of social conflicts and extremism, as well as issues of a young family, information nets, fashion etc. Special attention is paid to the social potential of the youth of rural areas. The textbook was prepared for students of higher educational institutions, students in the field of “Social work”, and “State and municipal management”.
|Belenkij A.Yu. Monitoring of youth subcultures in Moscow/ [Belenkij A.Yu. And others: edited Gusev A.V., Bugaev A.V.]: Departament of youth and family politics in the Moscow city. Moscow, State budget institution of Moscow Youth center “Constellation”, 2012. 155 p.
||The book presents the data of sociological studies of youth groups in the city of Moscow.
*The research «Youth in modern Russia: topical spiritual and moral problems of civil servant» was held the Department of civil service and personnel policy Department of the Institute of public administration and personnel management” of the Russian Academy of national economy and public service under the President of the Russian Federation in 2012. As respondents (experts) there were 51 state civil servants with experience of over five years. The array is processed using the software package SPSS (17 version). The degree of correlation is 0.75.
Prof. Santhi Jayasekara Prof. Tyurin vladimir
Since ancient time the expression Genius Loci – “genious of place” is well known. And the concept that captures the essence of this definition probably has a longer history.
Genius loci – the Spirit-protector of living or dead, large or small, whether village or town, a mountain, a separate tree or, finally, invisible unique atmosphere of a place or unexplained phenomenon.
This definition applies to humans or to being that protects a particular location.
Even Virgil in his Aeneid wrote that the snake appeared to Aeneas was adopted by him for the Genius loci.
And later the grammarian Servius (IV C.E.), commenting the lines of Virgil, said, “as there is no place without the spirit”.
The ancient authors wrote about the Genius Loci (G. L.) as a particular place given to them.
And the great Alexander Pushkin with his lyceum friends wrote on the stone in the Park in Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum G. L. – Genius Loci.
As claimed, the definition of “Genius loci” has a spiritual origin, or even sacred, mystical. Indeed, let’s recall the tenacity with which the old Testament David conquered the Salim town from the Jebusites. And pilgrimage, existing from immemorial time almost universally to various memorable or ancestral places, inspiring spiritual renewal, especially when the subject of worship are the relicts, icons, etc.
In ancient times, for example, Stonehenge was refered to such phenomena.
They assume that G. L. connects a person with the given place, with nature, with the material environment and, at the same time,with inexplicable influences. It is in such places the link of spiritual and emotional origins of man with the manifestation of natural forces is indicated. Thus there is an “awakening” of human abilities and its activation.
Other interesting natural phenomenon related to the topic, is the so-called phenomenon of Place of Power. These are particular pieces of land, large or small, on which there is a strong energy.
The concept of “energy” used in this context has no scientific explanation.
There is a wide set of such amazing examples. It can be both natural and man-made objects, places associated with historical events or religious activities of people.
The man in Places of Power feels a strong impact, which can be manifested both physically and emotionally. Moreover, the impacts may be both positive and negative.
However, the places of Power after some time can lose its energy, decline. For example, the already mentioned Stonehenge was once a powerful Place of Power, but now it has lost its properties.
Constantly the Places of Power arise and disappear on earth.The attenuation of the Places of Power energy can be compared with unmatched scale, with decreasing activity of the volcano.
Let the reader forgive us for a grim context of this comparison. We wanted to sketch a figurative example.
It is possible that the Power Places energy also calms down at some indefinite time.
Let’s refer again to the ancients, back in those days it was known about the magical properties of the Places of Power.
Such places were revered, there were built sacred buildings, temples, monasteries, churches. Interestingly that the worshippers in Places of Power have a kind of “feedback” with the object of worship.
The pilgrims, having applied the relicts, participating in Church services and ministries in churches or monasteries, according to their opinions, feel elation and peace, there are known cases of healing from serious illness. Also they know amazing and inexplicable facts, which the Church calls miracles. Such miracles can be attributed to the phenomenon of the Holy fire on the eve of the Orthodox Easter at the Church of the Lord in Jerusalem, or “revival” of the blood of St. Januarius in Naples and many other miracles.
Generalizing the concepts of “Places of Power” and “Genius loci” we can say that sometimes (no, not always) they can be perceived as a uniform phenomenon.
But “miracles” can be treated skeptically. Let’s remember that famous Albert Einstein called the Bible with all the miracles described there as a childish.
So, the Place of Power has the attraction, as we said during the active period, it is here that there are certain settlements, communities, organizations, it become a place of pilgrimage, thanks to its features, etc.
And now let’s speak about the Principality of Seborga.
From the immemorial time on the place of the Principality of Seborga Liguria people lived. Before them there were the Venetian, the history of which is dark and obscure.
Originating near Mountain BEGO (Mount Bego) was an important religious centre like the Greek Olympus. Liguria was once inhabited the whole of Europe till the North, and then were driven out by Celts to the Mediterranean sea. This was accompanied by an interpenetration of these peoples and their mutual assimilation with part of Liguria.
What people were the Celts? We know about them that they were magicians and sorcerers, and moreover loved gold. They left as a memory their legends, the mysterious Stonehenge in southern England, and descendants – Scots, Welshmen and Irishmen who do not really differ from their contemporaries.
But probably they left traces of their presence in relationships with Leguria.
Let’s remember also the key words of this paragraph: the presence of a religious center, magic and sorcery, left by the Celts.
In 400 C.E. on the site of today’s Seborga was the ancient fortress. According to other data there was a Church and monastery, but this statement is not categorical. We can not say for sure that at this time Christianity has already entrenched in these places.
Surrounding tribes of the Visigoths were Arian heretics, i.e. opponents of the dominant faith.Yeah, I guess it doesn’t really matter. And the crucial fact that the place was sacred, i.e. the site (if not center) of the spiritual life for the surrounding community.
In 600 C.E. the Cathars were accomodating here, who were considered by the recipients of the Arians. They preached asceticism, reaching to poverty.
Who were the Arians? Who were the Cathars? Nowadays when Europe is spreading atheism, few people are interested in Arians, at that time anathemized, and the Cathars, their followers considered to be heretics.
Cathars were fighting against the power of the Roman Church, and as already mentioned, preached asceticism and were uninteresting to the owners of these lands.
Here we want to emphasize that in this case the site of the present Seborga was a Holy place for the Cathars.
And being pressed by the Benedictine monks who were also rebuilding the place by Church, but the Christian buildings.
And Seborga itself became a sovereign Imperial Principality of the Holy Roman Empire.
And in 1118, the first nine knights Templars were consecrated there, those famous and mysterious, ever the selfless defenders of Christian pilgrims, but ended his career in the fire of Inquisition.
So was the fate of the knights Templar, the Order became rich and independent. They claimed as the Holy Grail and the Cross of the Lord, and even the Ark of the Covenant taken by the Templars from the Holy Land and hidden in secret vaults.
Their independence has angered the Vatican, and wealth aroused the envy. There was a lack of a pretext to bring down the Order. And the pretext was found, or rather was invented.
Templar declared heretics, in communications with the devil and all that was available to the imagination of the Inquisition
In 1307 in Paris the French king Philip IV occupied the headquarters of the order. After brutal torture, Jacques de Molay, Grand master of the Order, in 1314 was sent to the fire. Before to be consumed by fire Jacques de Molay shouted to the winners admiring the execution : “Pope Clement V, in forty days you will join me, and you, the king, will come to us in a year, and France will have big troubles”. These words are documented. And the prophecy came true.
Forty days later martyred Pope died, when falled on the hunt with horses. And the king died after one year. And France entered the war, the longest war has began- the Hundred Year’s war between France and England.
But the Templars have survived, not all were waiting for such a horrible death as in France. They say they just went out from highlighted scenes of the history.
Attention! Today You can become a knight Templar receiving this title in Seborga.
And another interesting fact relating to the Principality. Theologians have found in an ancient theological treatise the assertion that when the end of the world comes, only the Principality of Seborga will survive. Do not smile, these are the words of the theologians. Also they write that some foreigners bought land in Seborga, in the hope of surviving during the Armageddon, the final battle between Good and Evil on Earth.
Some skeptics call this simply a fraud. But to verify the true of these disputes we need a lot of time. So, let’s sum up the interim results of our descriptions.
The place where the Principality of Seborga is situated, can be attributed to so-called Places of Power.
Apparently, the manifestation of the specific properties of attraction and other abilities has not always been presented.
Apparently, there are circumstances and conditions, when this Place of Power shows its exceptional features.
It is observed that among the attributing features can be effects on humans, raising his spiritual potential and intellectual level; environmental impact, creating, calling “its own atmosphere”, and most importantly can provide overall health benefits on the human body. Combined with modern and non-traditional methods of healing, this natural phenomenon – natural gift can serve for benefit of the people.
Of course, the beneficial effects can not be unfounded. In our opinion, the greatest benefit can be achieved in the organized health care practice.
There are material, scientific, in some sense, explanations of ones or anothers unusual natural phenomena in some places of our planet.
It includes, for example, Calais, the well-known Tibet mount, a famous place of pilgrimage, or Table mountain in South Africa, etc.
Another impact, as we have said, are certain historical artifacts, sacred objects, etc.
Scientists find explanation for many “miracles”. Its inside – captive processes, the so-called crust fractures, effect of magnetic field, etc.
The question of the Genius loci, such psychological phenomenon, has left open. On the predictions and prophecies, also belonging to the Genius loci of the place in which there is a proof. He comes in prophetic dreams, intuition, premonition. I remember the famous physicist Tesla, born near Liguria, spoke about his discoveries ahead of time that all the ideas come to him from outside, “I am not the author of these ideas!”.
Facts, dates, arguments of the history of the Principality of Seborga.
I have to repeat, but without the poetic notes.
So, in the place where now the Principality of Seborga is situated, in 400 C.E., was the ancient fortress. And this fortress was called Castrum of Sepulcri.
We omit the legendary and mythological information about the presence of previous peoples before Liguria and Romans, while it is known they were Venetians, Etruscans, Liguria, Celts, Romans, Visigoths.
In the year 600 Cathars appeared at this place. And for them Seborga was a Holy place.
In the year 820 Ludovic Pious and Pope Padcali I created the first state education of Mapk SeaAlps and became its first rulers. Claudilo of Torino has appointed Prince Ventimiglia as the head of this “education”.
In the year 954 the priests from Periscope Abbey proclaimed Seborga as a Principality. In the year 1095 the Benedictines of the Principality participated in the Crusade.
And in the year 1118 the Prince consecrated the first nine Templars. They believe that it originated the movement of the Templars. Further, the Principality of Seborga was ruled by monarchs who chose the Abbot, which is at the same time the Prince of Seborga. In fact, however, the Principality was ruled by a Council of monks.
Let’s note that in 1666 the mint was created in Seborga, where they minted its own coins, Luigino.
In 1729 the Benedictines sold Seborga to Victor Amadeo II of Savoy, the king of Sardinia.
Attention! Documents of the sale have disappeared, having left no trace. And the Princedom itself was not mentioned in official documents.
Many years after the Republic of Genoa has formed, nor the Congress of Vienna, nor in the act of union of Italy (1861), i.e. in documents where the existence of the Principality of Seborga must be.
And Duce Mussolini called the Principality of Seborga the sovereign state.
In 1946 the Principality of Seborga wasn not again included in the Italy structure in making all post-war documents.
Finally, in 1961, a resident of the Principality of Seborga, a local historian Giorgio Carbane, studying the ancient archives, has found that Seborga is an independent Principality.
For two years the residents of Seborga were getting used to this idea and in 1963 in Seborga they held a referendum and all the citizens of the Principality voted for independence. They notified the Italian authorities and notified some other countries about the results of the referendum.
Obviously, the conducted archival research are focused on the proof of the sovereignty of the Principality of Seborga. These are not some separatists, and not even the self-proclaimed government.
We have said already that the Principality of Seborga is the first constitutional monarchy. Perhaps only the Republic of San Marino can surpass in its historic ambitions the Principality of Seborga.
So, in 1963, after the referendum Giorgio Carbone itself became its first monarch, Giorgio I. His role in the formation of the Principality of Seborga is invaluable. His historical studies and surveys, verification of historical materials and documents, creation on its basis of specific studies and proposals, and finally, the referendum. It should be noted that Carbone complied with all constitutional and other official, pertinent formalities.
It is interesting that the Italian authorities had little reaction to this event. Time passed, no disturbances were observed, there were not troublemakers, taxes have been paying, the law was not violating. And there was no oppositions in the Principality, the subjects of the Principality knew each other well. Well, what confrontation can arise?
There was a cooperation and collaboration between the authorities of the Principality. The Principality is an obedient subject of Italy. And in response, the Principality enjoys public services: social welfare, health, police, etc.
The Principality is located in the administrative district of Liguria, in the Republic of Italy.The actual control of state power is not contested. Citizens of Seborga participate in general elections, use common infrastructure, etc.
Nevertheless, the Principality claims to sovereignty in the full sense of this word.
So, the 27th of November, in the interview with the newspaper “The Telegraph”, the monarch of the Principality Giorgio I wrote that “the Principality of Seborga has recognized 20 States, and that the Principality of Seborga has its embassies in 10 countries”. This interview was published on 27 November 2009, and two days before the publication the Prince Giorgio I died.
Any other information on the international recognition is not be published.
The entrance to the Principality of Seborga is guarded by the border guards. And over the buildings of the Principality there are national flags of Seborga, as a symbol of national pride.
It is possile to enter the territory of the Principality with the passport of Seborga, which must be purchased on arrival. This procedure is similar to the registration when entering certain countries.
According to the Constitution, the Principality of Seborga is controlled by the Parliament, which is called Priori. It consists of 22 priors, elected by head of state from the citizens of the Principality.
Prince also elects the members of the Crown Council, headed by the Chancellor, who is also considered to be the Prime Minister.
The Crown Council is composed of 9 Ministers, responsible for all aspects of the management and functioning of the country.
The Principality has its mint and mints its own coins luigino and centesimo. These coins are made of silver, bronze and copper. Need to be reminded that it is the creation of a private mint that is a revival of the historical events of 1666, when the mint was created, who also minted luigino, appreciated in the neighbouring countries of Italy and France.
The 25 April 2010 the new ruler of the Principality of Seborga was elected, it is Marcello Menegatto, a 31-year-old Swiss (but with Italian roots) from Lugano.
According to the Constitution of the Principality of Seborga its ruler may be a native of Seborga, who was baptized in Seborga. However, in this case the Constitution has been changed.
Generally in the history of European monarchies the invitation to the Board of the foreign ruler is an existing practice.
So in the case of Marcello Menegatto there is nothing fundamentally new.
In the policy statements the elected Prince said:
“My first objective will be the creation of new infrastructure and jobs. I will also focus on the development of state status and documentation that conclusively proves our historical origins and rights, and will continue our fight for independence from Italy”.
The Prince knows to take a pattern by, near we have Monaco, a prosperous Principality, even a small state too.
Yes, today the indigenous Seborga inhabitants are less than 400 people, but on the territory once owned by the Principality, more than 2,000 people live and the area takes 14 sq km. Whether they have a similar history with the people of Seborg in the true sense of the word? Here we have something to clear.You can pay attention to the state of the Order of Malta, also located in Italy. And the area of this State is only one building in the old part of Rome, plus a mansion in Malta. However, the population is about 13 thousand people according to the latest data. It is clear that the citizens of Malta live outside of it.
So the Principality of Seborga has a pattern to equal.
And now let’s temporarily change the subject. The following passage is unusual, it relates to the different area, technical civilization, in particular nanotechnology.
On the eve of 1960 at California technological institute at the Christmas dinner of the American Physical society, the American physicist Richard Feynman presented (and then published) a work, in which he estimated the prospects for miniaturization. The work called “Downstairs there’s plenty of space”. And forty years later the whole world faced a new scientific and technological phenomenon of nanotechnology. Faced – doesen’t mean stopped, but took, began to use and develop both science and practice. Today nanotechnology heads the cutting-edge field of science, is of great theoretical asset and impressive results.
And the weakest analogy suggests that in knowledge, in civilization development there is no limit of “small” neither in scientific nor in a spiritual environment and form of human existence.
Now let’s go down to earth. Lets’ recall that simultaneously with the adoption of the Constitution of the Principality of Seborga the first steps of improvement of society have been made, the improvement of the pension system and the state of health care were mentionned in the first documents, i.e. a socially oriented program for changing existing practices was provided.
New modern projects, in addition to political activity include economic and social activities.
Of course you should continue to cultivate olives and flowers, if there is a demand. Need to mint coins, we have already said that this is a revival of the old tradition. This money can be traded in the Principality, attract numismatists. Luigino is produced in limited quantities and is considered one of the most expensive currencies in the world. In particular, it has a proportion to the dollar as of 1:7.
Current economic practices in Seborga is tourism, as well as in Monaco, in Rome and throughout the Italy.
In the first years after the proclamation of the sovereignty of Seborga, tourists were interested in the new itself, in the very act of birth of the Principality.
Currently tourism is supported at the query level of curious travelers. Tourists admire the wonderful climate, amazing pictures of the surroundings, acquire memory cards and gifts.
The Principality of Seborga is a discovery for stamp collectors. And some tourists remark the cuisine of Seborga, which specific dish is rabbit. But the Principality has its own, inherent only to Seborga sources of income; it is the sale of titles and lands.
As we have said, for 50 thousand euros you can become a nobleman, a knight-Templar.
We mentioned again the knights Templar not by chance. For comparison, let us explain our idea. For example, the Order of Malta, that is under the patronage of the Vatican and has a state recognition, has the ability to receive large donations from various official and private sources and on this basis to carry out its charitable activities to address social issues, etc.
The Templars, or rather what is left of them are the unwanted.
Let’s recall that the Templars were created to protect pilgrims giong to the Holy Land, the Templars protected them and helped in every way
There is no doubt that the destruction of the Order was under a predatory interests of the French king Philip V. And though Philip V got revenge in the predicted timing, the Order of the Templars has declined. Even though they remained in Cyprus, and have saved its lives in Germany, the Order itself stoped to exist .
How these facts can be used? The fact is that today Christianity stands in need of protection, in ensuring its foundations and principles, in opposition to atheism, etc. Of course, we are talking about “soft power” of resistance , and the promotion of Christian values, morals and ethics.
The organization of the knights Templar on the basis of possibilities of the Principality wouldn’t be artificial. Of course it will require normalization of relations with the Vatican.
We should take into account the following information:
In 2001 in the archives of the Vatican by accident (!) the document was found showing that Pope Clement V has removed from the Knights Templar all incriminations of heresy in 1314, i.e. in the year of execution of the Grand Master of the Order.
And in 2007 the “Processus Contra templarios, or the Investigation of the Holy Altar in the matter of the Templars” was published by the leadership of the Vatican that recognized the Templars guilty of such “grave sins” as embezzlement and sexual immorality, but do not believe.
If you understand that the confessions of the Templars were obtained after long agonizing torture, we can trust these conclusions.
When considering the so-called “sins”, then punishment cannot be infinite. Besides homosexual love, which is attributed to the knights Templar today is considered a sign of democratic society in Europe.
And the idea of embezzlement is doubtable. The Templars were actively engaged in financial activities, gave money in growth, were remunerated for the provision of security, etc. What kind of embezzlement can be discussed if the knights Templar was an independent organization, not associated with any financial or other obligations with the States of Europe (excluding some issues).
We believe that our arguments can be taken into account when initiating contacts with the Vatican. From accessible innovations there is of interest the project of creation of the research center of health, speaking modern language.
Great potential for tourism development is historical past of the Principality of Seborga.
Imagine what was happening on this earth within the changing these peoples, civilizations and cultures. The historical creation of panoramas, historical and cultural exhibits, historical re-creating of the decorative images of land and public places of settlements existed here, of course, on the appropriate scale and reasonable cost – all this will be interesting for tourists and history amateurs.
It’s not our task to teach the leadership of the Principality to stimulate its economy. We just gave examples that we have seen in England and Cuba, Scandinavia and Russia, etc.
I would like to finish our story with the same thoughts that we started it.
We talked about the Genius Loci, the Place of Power. The Genius Loci may be the actual geographic area and memorable or sacred, and (and this is important) nonmaterial, energetic, spiritual impact and, even outstanding persons.
Most important factors, such as attenuation and activation of properties of the Genius Loci again. Moreover, such an awakening may be caused by external phenomena and processes.
Might be is it time for revival?
Indian cinema and Bollywood
The distinguishing feature of Indian cinema has always been uniqueness based on the tradition of national drama, even when the most serious movie plot is followed by songs and dances with the emphasis on musical compositions.
It is quality of music and songs which are so crucial for success of films. In order to attract attention of the audience, long before the premiere of films themselves some soundtracks are usually released.
The major character is an ordinary person, which is able to withstand the evil and injustice and, as the majority of cinema industry are the representatives come from low classes. This factor is the main during the film making.
Good music, bright colors, beautiful dresses help the viewer forget about his life problems for a while.
The history of Indian cinema dates back to the end of the 19th century, when technological wonder of the Lumiere brothers with the help of light allowed to play movements on the screen. After 6 years of its invention, this technology got to Indian and in 1901 the first documentary was made.
The father of Indian cinema is Dhundiraj Govind Phalke , who created his style known even today. After the acquaintance with European cinema industry, Phalke created the house of cinema production, and in 1913 shot the first Indian film “Raja Harishchandra”.
The term “Bollywood”, which occurred at the end of the 70s, included two components: this is a synonym of cinema industry of Mumbai (past – Bombay) and analogous cinema industry of the city of California (the USA) Hollywood. The wide spread of the term “Bollywood” happened in the 90s, when Indian films started to be released in Western Europe, America and Great Britain. In Bombay the actor Prithviraj Kapoor was considered to be the founder of cinema industry. He was the first from Kapoor clan, three generations of which also made their career in the cinema industry.
Here are the main stages of the development of cinema in India:
– 1930-1940 –the first sound film “Alam Ara” (1931) was released. At this time 27 sound films were released as well. This was a real breakthrough in the country’s cinema. It considerably broadened the opportunities of cinema masters, and Bollywood production started to grow. By the 1939 more than 200 films had been released in India and the cinema industry of the country is on the 4th place in world’s top film production and on the 8th from theatrical release revenue.
– 1940-1960. The growing tendency of move from black-and-white films to color ones. During this period the films, which are now considered to the classics of the genre, were released. The film by Mehboob Khan “Mother India”, which was nominated for Oscar for The Best Foreign Language film (1957), the films “Pyassa” and “Kaagaz Ke Phool” by Guru Dutt were included by journalists in the list of the 100 best films of the world.
– 1970-1980- Among romantic films, the films about gangsters and mafia were also shot. Amitabh Bachchan followed this genre and today his is famous as one of the best actors of Indian film industry. He created the image of “Robin Hood”, who all alone withstood all the evil and injustice.
-1990s – This period is characterized by the return to family and romantic musicals. And even though Indian film makers prefer considering the problems of all the audience (considerably broadening the demand for cinema production), there were still films for the ordinary people and city residents or foreigners.
The main viewers of Indian cinema are from South-Western and South Asia, Middle East, Arabian Society of France and almost all Africa.
It is such a wide range of markets that makes shoot “shallow” and understandable movies, skipping all the emotional, language and situational peculiarities.
The emerging changes:
Cinema in India nowadays is at its rise, because of the reforms conducted by the government.
The government realized that for a high-tech county, which India is rapidly becoming, the creation of new cinema will influence the new, modern image of a country on the world’s markets. Besides, if in the past cinema industry was the part of services sector, now, under the pressure of outstanding people of art and big corporations, cinema has obtained the status of “industrial production” with the opportunity to attract both bank and outward investments. Amount of financing increased by more than 50%, and, as a result, in 2008 total gain from ticket sales reached 3 billion dollars.
In new cinema shot with the use of modern technologies new characters appeared. As, for example, in the film “And laughter, and tears” starring Amitabkh Bachanov, the main idol of the 80s, and with the budget 8,5 million dollars, the biggest one in the whole history of Bollywood.
With the turn of the new century Bollywood started to compete with Hollywood for international recognition.
Film director Mira Nair brings to Cannes his film “Salaam Bombay!” and got Jury and Audience Choice Award. That year his film “Monsoon Wedding” was awarded the Golden Lion in Venice and in her recognition she was offered to be the Head of the Jury of the 52th Berlin film festival.
For the first time in London in 2000 the Oscar Award Ceremony for the Indian filmmakers was held. The film director Shekhar Kapur was awarded for the films “Queen Eizabeth” (shot in England) and “Queen of gangsters” (shot in India).
Indian film makers are now thinking of Hollywood, of its experience and resources. Indian delegations visit the USA quite often, and the Association of American feature Motion Pictures is thinking of the opportunity of cooperation of both countries’ cinema industry.
There is no cooperation with Russia yet. And, in spite of the great amount of Western films, there are many people in Russian who appreciate Indian cinema. Video cassettes and discs are eagerly bought in kiosks and malls. The consumer is loyal in his love to this complicated and ordinary, good and banal, but still bright, exotic, cheerful happy ending. National cinema and its actors for the dwellers of India mean life itself. First of all, this concerns old-school actors. They could act any genre, any character and any hero.
Outstanding actors and their films:
Dev Anand is one of the outstanding actors (those were also both film directors and producers of their films). He was the actor, film director, producer, writer; he starred in more than 100 films as a major character. His first picture was a thriller “Enemies” (1951).
In 1971 Dev Anand made the film “Brother and sisters”. It was the reaction to hippie culture. He made a contribution to Bollywood fashion by creating his own unique style: fringe, bright and colorful shirts, corduroy jeans and yellow scarf. His dramatic type is romantic hero.
The same with 2 outstanding actors: Raj Kapoor and Rajesh Khanna. Dev Anand starred in the Indian adaptation of “The Government Inspector” by Gogol. He was included into the Jury of Moscow International Cinema Festival (1961). He spent his last years in London, where he died at the age of 88.
Dharmendra is an actor, producer, and politician. He climbed on a career ladder slowly. In the film “Flower and stone” (1966) he starred with the actress Mina Kumary (who had already starred in several films) and this film become a real hit. Dharmendra plays roles of courageous and tender men, attracting a lot of fans. During the shooting of “Sholay” he met the actress Hema Malini. And at that time they become famous couple, which was for a long time the most commercially successful on the screen. 16 from 28 films, where they played, became real hits:
“Flower and stone” (1966)
“Red and stubborn” (1970)
“Zita and Gita” (1972)
“My name is clown” (1972)
“Favorite Radja” (1972)
“The eternal fairytale of love” (1977)
“Ali Baba” (1979)
“The burning Train” (1980)
“Like the Three Musketeers” (1984)
“Hum Kaun Hai?” (2005)
Raj Kapoor is the king of Indian cinema, actor, film director, screen writer. He starred in 80 films. He played plenty of roles, which had an impact on Indian cinema culture.
For the first time he acted when he was 6 years working in the theatre “Pritkhvi-theatres” not only as an actor, but as a scene worker, lighting technician and cleaner. His father, Pritkhviradj Kapur, was the owner of this theater, and that is why the father had very high demands for his sons (Raj has 2 brothers-Shammi and Shashi).
But Raj Kapoor wanted to make his future career in cinema. His first films “Fire” and “ Rain season” were shot together with Nargis, who had become his close friend and helper in creation of outstanding cinema hits. But a real recognition to Kapoor came with his third directorial work. This was a legendary film “Tramp”. In 1951the film was released on the screen of India and immediately become successful. This was the story of a boy from slums, who wanted to be an honest man, but he was forced to steal. The tramp, played by Raj, was naively sly, ambitious, slippery, but at the same time vulnerable.
The film is distinguished by moving moments and unbelievable coincidences, and Raj Kapoor – by the talent of a comedian, by songs and dances, by his laugh during his talks about the serious and tragic. However, the ending of the film was unexpectedly happy.
Soon the film “Tramp” was internationally accepted and got Prize in Cannes. In the USSR this film was incredibly successful and many people watched it in the cinema not just one time. Boys on the streets trying to imitate the Tramp, would copy his step and sing his song: “I am Tramp, Tramp!”
In 1955 a satirical comedy “Mr. 420” was released. This film was some kind of a variant of “Tramp” (2 parts as well) and it got 9 awards from the Association of Journalists.
Raj Kapoor got another Award on the International Film Festival in Karlovy Vary (1957) – The Globe de Cristal. This is the story of a peasant, who was taken for a thief by rich landlords. Raj Kapoor wrote the script and played the major role.
Kapoor was often compared with Chaplin. Awkward gestures, shuffling gait, shyness and vulnerability in his eyes-all this had an impact on a viewer. But still, regardless of some traits of external similarity with the characters of Chaplin, Kapoor found his character, which took peculiarities of Indian National Character. He was young, handsome, full of strength and charm and, unlike Chaplin, didn’t get into awkward situations.
Kapoor and Nargis broke up, and a new level at Kappor’s career as an actor and film director began. There came a star of another range-layback Padmini.
In 1960 the film “In the country, where the Gang flows” starring Padmini was released. Here the sensual prevailed over the spiritual. Gradually, social problematics in Kapoor’s films set aside. His passion for materialistic values and luxury changed the final variant of the film “Bobby”.
It brought record-breaking profit, when it was released in 1973. His films “Turbid Gang-God’s River” (1985) and “Love Illness” (1982) were box-office hits. In these films Kappor changed poetical realism to deliberate entertainment.
In 1988 Kapoor was awarded the most honorable prize in the county- D. Phalke Prize, but during the ceremony he lost consciousness and after some time died. With the death of Kapoor the whole epoch of Indian cinema finished. His work was continued by his sons: Randhir, Rishi and Rajiv.
Nargis (Nargis Dat) is an Indian actress, who starred in 50 films. Her famous film partner was Raj Kapoor. She met him in 1945. “We were meant to be”-said Raj later on. His hectic romance with Nargis became national legend…
A Russian viewer knew her from the films “Tramp”, “Mr. 420” and also from Soviet-Indian film “Journey Beyond Three Seas”. But her most famous film was “Mother India”, which got the Prize in International Film Festival in Karlovy Vary, and Nargis played Best Female Role. By playing Radha, a widow, who brought up two sons and saved their lives, but still at the same time saving her virtue, Nargis turned into the perfect example for “mothers” of the next Indian family cinema.
In 1968 Nargis obtained National Award for Best Female Role for the film “Day and Night”.
P.S. Any genre has been available to Indian cinema, because old actor “army” could play any character.
In Bollywood there are about 600 films under production. This number is close to Hollywood, but… budget is not to compare.
The friendship between Russia and India has existed from the times of the USSR and has always been the subject of attention of both countries. Today we witness the Renaissance of Russian-Indian friendship. And for Russian and Indian film-makers this is the opening of new perspectives in realization of joint projects.