EFFECT OF ICT ON SOCIETAL TENETS OF PRIVACY OF EMERGING
International University of Fundamental Studies
Dr. Simon Wachira Mugo , PhD
Professor Subberto Alexander
3rd January 2, 2020
The social media, derived from the social software movement, are a collection of Internet websites, services, and practices that support collaboration, community building, participation, and sharing. As defined by Bryer and Zavatarro (2001), “Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration, and enable deliberation across stakeholders” (p. 327). These technologies now include blogs, wikis, media (audio, photo, video, text) sharing tools, networking platforms (including Facebook), and virtual worlds. Grounded theory methodology was used to guide collection and analysis of empirical data for this study. The study found out that Social media has invaded the privacy of the multimedia users and the trend seems to be evolving by the day. The societal tenets are at risk of extinction thus a need to re-examine the ongoing trend.
Key Words: Privacy, Data Security, Ethics, global net, e-world
Today, the society we have a tendency has a variety of information-based technologies. This has been necessitated by the knowledge society that we have a tendency to use on a daily basis. In the old days, morality was a serious issue and controlled how people behaved. Social group believes and virtues are trodden upon because of using modern communication methods .This is because of the World Wide Web or interne (Johnson, 1994).
There is a tendency to square measure presently living within the supposed modern era which may be delineated as associate era were economic activities square measure principally data based mostly (an age of using information). It is fast because of using advanced skills and knowhow. The various features of our age may be described as an increase within the variety of information staff, a globe that has that is exposed and vulnerable – within the context of communication (worldwide village/Gutenberg galaxy) and internationalization (data- flow across states). This architype comes with fresh or foreign moral and legal issues and challenges that square measure principally associated with problems like the correctness of obtaining data, the privilege of privacy that is vulnerable by the stress on the unrestricted movement of knowledge, and the safeguarding of the financial concern of the house owners of the premises. Through this paper, the moral queries associated with the people’s right to confidentiality of the individual that is vulnerable by the utilization of technology are mentioned. Specific attentions are given to the challenges these moral glitches to the knowledge worker. Variety of sensible strategies, supported by moral norms are discussed (Borje, 2002).
Impact of Technology
Although technology incorporates a major impact on the gathering, storage, retrieval and dissemination of knowledge its main moral impact relates to accessibility/inaccessibility and also the manipulation of knowledge. It creates the chance of concurrent access to data.
Consequently, it becomes easier to access a personality’s non-public data by many individuals. On the opposite hand, someone may be excluded from vital information and data in digital form through a range of safety actions like access codes and passwords.
The technical operation and handling of knowledge denotes, amid others, to the combination of knowledge (linking of memoranda) and reorganizing hence (conversions and the combination of matter and graphical formats). It also refers to the doable neutering of knowledge (altering of graphic pictures and graphics) by electronic means refers to technology used while processing knowledge thus; it is not supposed to be seen as morally bad. Christians (1999) refers to the employment of advanced skills as a worthwhile course. Kluge (1994, p. 337) also states that use of new skills and techniques has modified the ontological connotation of a text with associated moral insinuations. By this he specifically refers to the manipulation of knowledge by suggests that of technology. The past decade has seen a revolution within the method we have a tendency to communicate. Spontaneous varieties of services will be formed –online, as well as vast amounts of multimedia content – on-line, along with great amount of high, hypermedia composition.
According to Lauden, Trevor & Lauden(1996), today’s information society has brought numerous changes that come with many societal expectations. They expect the technology to do everything, prepare documents, edit and even package for them. All participants – customers, service suppliers and government expects the underlying communications infrastructure to support the bulk of tasks the digital Society can places upon them. They will expect services to produce the needed or expected practicality, to be available at all times and locations. They also expect the technology to process and store their data in a safe manner. Furthermore, the communications services and devices comprising internet will have to integrate to give a dependable atmosphere where facilities and amenities are of greater reliability. Without cooperation of the various players in the industry, this can’t be realized as an outcome. Moreover it is the goal of each technology to ease the delivery of the desired services.
The previous era experienced has changed in how individuals and entities connect and send information, it has improved the manner or how communication is undertaken. A higher number of services have been created online, together with vast quantities of detailed hypermedia contents. There exist many factors that are responsible for this revolution. The occurrence of the information society is because of forces of demand and supply, here the global net delivers internet to vendors’ unbelievable environment and stage to showcase their products and services courtesy of the emergence of the Digital Society.
One is that the demand for goods and services using the net provides service suppliers alternative and unbelievably effective platform to deliver of services to customers. Additionally, this bidirectional mode of communicating implies service suppliers learn many things about customer behaviors’ than in the past. This improves their understanding of the customers, which makes them serve them better yielding more sales and revenues.
Finally, this has the effect of improving the economic wellbeing of a country. Customers also are pushing the momentum and trend on-line, signifying a powerful inclination for the accessibility and handiness, the all-time access and personalization provided by internet oriented facilities and amenities. Finally, all over Europe, state administrations also are pushing the information society. This is done by rolling out more and more online public services like Driving Licensing, registration of births and citizens. This is being created and accessible typically solely, via the net. These moves and trends may be inspired by the prospects of decreasing prices by implementing more methods of providing economical facilities and amenities, or realizing new one with less expensive services, like telemedicine and telecare.
Information Privacy and the Economy
Information technology skills have developed and turned into the basis and foundation of the numerous economic functions and processes in the world. It has been transformed into a crucial resource that all economic sectors rely on and require. Currently, data and technology reinforces and strengthens the advanced or innovative systems maintain the functioning of our economies. This is in crucial divisions such as business and investments, healthcare, energy and transportation. Several corporate and commercial models are designed on the seamless and continuous accessibility of internet and efficient operations of data processing systems.
The information systems that supports and underpins the various sectors of economy exists because of the existence of vibrant internet connectivity that facilitates communicates between the many players involved. However, it is necessary to understand well progress in know-how and technology, if not well used might turn out to be a danger of future operation of the global network, as well as flexibility and trustworthiness of the technology. It will only be used if users can trust it to be secure, maintain the integrity of information as well being accessible when needed. It is therefore important to design an innovative programme of analysis that investigates closely all technological aspects of future reliable and resilient networks.
Failure to do so it will mean that the Digital Society is based and predicated on a significant infrastructure which will neither be trustworthy nor reliable. There is evidence and proof that governments in Europe are progressively taking the issue of network reliability and resilience seriously. In the past, it has been observed that whereas the e-world carries monumental advantages, it’s conjointly and likewise weak and susceptible. internet cases, be it deliberate or unintentional, remains at an a exponential rate and this interrupt and hinder the availability of vital facilities and amenities that have been cherished and taken for granted like water, medical services, power or personal phone services. This danger comes from completely diverse sources as well as illegal, civically intended, radical or state-sponsored attacks.
The EU economy for instance is already affected by cybercrime activities against the non-public sector and people. Internet related attacks and crimes against the citizens and the non-public sector has already affected the EU economy. Internet hackers are utilizing advanced approaches that are intrusive into data systems. After stealing essential information or blackmailing firms they ask for hefty ransoms. The rise of economic undercover work and state-sponsored activities on computer networks or internet poses a brand innovative class of threats for EU administrations and firms. This is also replicated in all countries of the world. In countries outside the EU, governments might also misuse computer network for police work and management over their own voters. In non-European member states, public administrations might also misuse computer networks and internet for police and intelligence surveillance management against the will and knowledge of their voters (Johnson, 1994).
European community member states will oppose this move through the endorsement and encouragement on-line liberty and freedom and guaranteeing and defending of elementary privileges on-line. These issues and reasons give a rationale for why governments across the globe must begin to create internet security methods. These approaches will contemplate and regard internet in-security as a global issue worthy of great concern.
It is now time for European member countries to increase their activities in this area. Application for internet strategy of the EU recommends and outlines the vision in this issues and domain. This proposal explains the functions, responsibilities, and action plan of activities needed to protect and safeguard the privileges of users. The inter-state and multifaceted net has turned out to be key versatile tools for international development without governmental oversight or regulation. Whereas the non-public segment ought to still perform a number one responsibility and task within the building and regular administration of the net, the requirement for needs of transparency, being responsible and safety is turning out to be significant. This policy explains the philosophies, values, and that ought to direct internet policy within the EU and globally (Abas,2001).
The Research Problem
So many expectations surround the digital society. All participants’ as well as customers, service suppliers and the government can expect the underlying communications backbone to sustain the various needs that are associated with the digital society. They will expect services to produce the specified practicality, to be obtainable in real-time time, and ubiquitous as well as storing their data in a safe and guarded manner.
The issue of availability is central. The technology has eased and lessened the cost and effort of making information available together with the associated services that it supports. The PHILOSOPHY of technological determination and its drawbacks. This new revolution has impacted negatively on morals and it has eroded the rights of an individual to safe and secures personal data. Over the last twenty years, the net and broadly speaking computer networks they have amazing impact on all components of society.
An open and liberated network that operates according to demand and supply promotes economic prosperity and social liberation; this has weakened barriers that existed among nations, communities and voters, permitting collaboration and the sharing of knowledge, inventions and new ideas throughout the world. The global net has availed and given a medium for liberty of presenting views and observing elementary privileges.
In order for computer network to be free or unrestricted and liberated and free, identical tenets, values and morals that the European Union observes online, ought to conjointly be used on-line. Elementary privileges, democracy and the rule of law need to be safeguarded in a computer network or the global net. Our liberty and economic growth progressively rely upon a sturdy and improvement oriented net, which is able to still expand if non-public segment innovation and civil society drive its growth. However liberty on-line needs security and security too.
Computer networks ought to be guarded against activities and events, wicked and mischievous activities and abuse and misappropriation; and public administrations partake a big part in guaranteeing a unrestricted and secure computer network. Public administrations experience many responsibilities, which include: to protect access and honesty, to respect and shield elementary privileges on-line as well as taking care of responsibility and ability of global net. However, this non-public sector holds and drives important components of computer network, so for any government inventiveness in achieving success issue it needs to be acknowledged for its principal responsibility.
Purpose of the Study
This analysis examines the views of the multimedia system on the societal group values that appears to be damaged or trodden upon, left, right and center by the arrival of myriads of net applications. These are services and products that systems of yester-years would not avail or provide.
The study adopted content analysis of existing literature on the ethics, privacy and values and information security throughout the rising multimedia system and social group values by the arrival of myriads of net applications that bequest systems of yester-years could not propagate. The methodology was found to be applicable since the topic of study could not be measured using existing data or information whether primary or secondary. The researcher was compelled to examine statistics and publications of other scholars.
Kenya had approximately two hundred net users within the year 2000 however presently there are 16.4 million subscribers as at the end 2017. This number which differs with that of the CCK statistics that place the sum subscribers at 17.3 million joining all cell phone and information net users, land-based wireless uses, satellite subscriptions, mounted net links and fiber optic users.
Kenya’s net diffusion is approximately twenty-five percent of the population that stands at forty one million folks. This shows that by 2015 only 10 million subscribers were using internet notwithstanding the fact that internet was available from as early as 2002. CCK’s statistics place the diffusion at thirty -six out of a hundred. Kenyan subscribers comprise Africa’s 7.5% folks with access to net. This recent statement printed on www.internetworldstats.com explains however that the expansion in net adoption has produced benefits in Kenya. They argue it brought about an explosion of information based services. The statement outlines the increase of net users in Africa.
Broadband is quickly replacement dial-up because the most well liked access technique. This method has nearly served and covered Africa’s lot of developed markets. This statement gives a 126 statistical tables showing trends and expansions within the communications markets of the thirty-eight most important African states telecommunications-wise This Kenyan
Communications Commission (CCK) three-monthly regional figures for the duration October to December 2011 acclaimed the rise and credited it to cellphone-based net subscriptions.
Kenya noted the highest level of economic crimes among seventy-eight countries surveyed, with an occurrence level of sixty six per cent, which is sort of double the world average of thirty four per cent. The report enclosed broad classes of economic crimes that are:
Asset misappropriation, accounting fraud, felony and corruption, cybercrime, concealing and anti-competitive behavior. Whereas the survey wanted to find the occurrence and trends of these crimes, it failed to address every crime of the broad classes in a comprehensive way. Accounting fraud, that is described as deliberate manipulation of accounting records to form a company’s monetary performance or condition appear higher than it truly is was not addressed.
The usual purpose is to extend the quantity that a possible capitalist can pay or to extend incentive pay to those whose pay depends on a company’s performance. Firms planning to commit fraud are inventive in their attempt to manipulate the system. The reports states that the quantity of estimated net users stands at sixteen point two million up from fourteen point five million as denoted within the previous quarter. This represents a growth of 11.6 % during the period, internet diffusion rose up by 4.3 percent points to achieve 41.1 % up after 36.8 % throughout the earlier amount.
The study recommends that companies ought to look once more at their defenses to see whether or not their data and information is well protected and secure. This can be by encouraging firms in all sectors to form investments in in improving cyber security, supported improved risk assessments, is probably going to significantly lower the economic impact of internet crimes globally. The following suggestions were arrived at after the analysis of various threats. Note that Security is as dynamic as is human existence, thus newer measures will have to be sought in future.
- Ensuring that they identify crucial data in their transactions that needs routine backup.
- Setting up regular information systems audit to ensure efficiency of information systems and applications.
- Setting up contingency plans such as daily routine backups at the end of a particular day.
- Ensuring that the backup computer is an off-line computer and is not connected to any network.
There challenges to the East African community, supposedly, remain principally in the over-all and universal absence of consciousness of data safety problems, the fast evolving sophistication of computer software’s, the rising capability and spread of data, networking and internet-based communications technology.
Abas, G. (2001). ICT in Malaysia: Policy, Regulation & Industry Progress (1996-2000) and Prospects (2001-2005) Gazali Abas, ITU-Waseda University workshop for Regulations and Policymakers: “New Trends in ICT” 13-14 November 2001. Waseda University Tokyo, Japan.
Borje, A.J. (2002). Cybercrime and Information Security in the Philippines, Country Report, Asia-Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security Seoul, Republic of Korea 11-13 November 2002, http://www.unescap.org/
Broadhurst, R. (2002). E-commerce & Cybercrime: issues, problems & prevention. Asia-Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 11-13 November 2002.
Bryneson, M. (2002). Sexual exploitation on the Internet. Asia-Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security, 10-12 November 2002, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Cha, Y. (2002). The Republic of Korea’s policies and strategies for enhancing information security. Asia-Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security, Seoul, Republic of Korea 11-13 November 2002. http://www.unescap.org/escap_work/ict/Cybercrime%20meeting/ Presentations/Session%202%20-%2
Chan, K.W. (2002). INFOCOMM security, Country Report on Singapore, Asia-Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security Seoul, Republic of Korea 11-13
November 2002. http://www.unescap.org/ escap_work/ict/Cybercrime%20meeting/
Johnson, D.G. (1994). Computer Ethics, second edition; Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.
Kaewjumnong, S. (2002). Thailand Country Report on Cybercrime and Information Security, Asia-Pacific Conference on Cybercrime and Information Security
Laudon, K. (1995). “Ethical Concepts and Information Technology,” Communications of the ACM, December 1995 p 33-40.
Laudon, K.C., Traver, C.G. and Laudon J.P. (1996). Information Technology and Society, pp.513.