GREAT HERITAGE OF SUMER

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Tyurin V. , Professor        Shanti Jayasekara, Professor

 

Archeology, scientific research, as well as individual hypotheses and assumptions of world history with varying degrees of reliability, are currently submitted to the judgment of experts and interested public.

In this case, the following areas of scientific papers and presented hypotheses and propositions are obvious:

– hypotheses of the existence of prehistoric civilizations and cultures;

– “justifications” by individual authors, and even groups and “schools” in revaluation and adjustments of taken historical propositions;

– “expansion” of historical and ideological formations, consisting in claims for justification of its “birthright” in historical chronology and authorship of the subsequent development of other civilizations and cultures.

As a rule, the findings of such historical research and reflections are projected on modern ideology and politics.

The scientific community is wary of rethinking the history. But it only excites the opponents.

At the same time, the established historical tenets in some cases are based on dubious sources, give rise to critical assessments.

The present work is a brief summary of the research and scientific works on the first, in our opinion, human civilizations.

So, the place of birth of the first human civilization – the Middle East, Mesopotamia. Yes, yes, where Eden was, where Adam and Eve, who gave us life, were expelled from.

Duration, without further ado, we will also take from the known sources – about four and a half thousand years BC. Name and location of occurrence – Schumer. And its population, Sumerians, who came out of nowhere.

Artifacts, supporting livelihoods in Mesopotamia before the Sumerians, were discovered. And in  Sumerian sources they say about a city-state of Aratta, located somewhere near the Caspian Sea. However, some researchers suggest that Aratta is the ancestral home of the Sumerians. But for us the evidence base is Schumer.

Economic basis for the existence of Sumer was agriculture. Hard work of the Sumerians for several centuries has created a self-sufficient provided community.

Irrigation facilities allowed to organize agriculture on fertile soils. Sludge, pressed into bricks, served stout construction material. The existing structure of society, collaboration and struggle for existence became the foundation of the first state.

Apparently, artisans met the needs of consumers, using both their own raw materials and raw materials purchased at the market.

Trade was developing, both with neighbors and by sea. And a sail first appeared in Sumer, when it was requested by the economy.

An army was organized, well-armed regular troops. Schumer owed ​​its superiority in armament and organization of warfare in their victories over their neighbors.

Schumer country consisted of several city-states. Surrounded with high walls villages and settlements belonged to it were located around the city.

.The structure of society was represented by such social strata, like grand people, the rich stratum of the population, who owned large estates, the so-called commoners collectively owning the land, and “clients”.

Temple dependents and valuable artisans were considered customers, small plots of land were given to some of them, labor of others was paid.

Society was slave-holding, but according to the sources, slaves were treated well. A slave could redeem freedom and possessed certain rights, etc.

At the head of the city was a “big man”, who was elected among free citizens. In the case of making important decisions for the state, free citizens convened on bicameral “assembly”, including a house of “husbands” and a house of “elders”.

However, there was some spiritual motivation for the existence and development of society. We mean religion.

According to the beliefs and convictions of the Sumerians, the gods created people to serve themselves. Acknowledge and thank to the creator formed the ideology of worship and glorification of the gods, that was reflected in the construction of temple buildings, rituals and ceremonies.

The main building of the Sumerian city was the temple. It was the tallest and most beautiful building in the city.

The priests were the most influential class, determining the spiritual content and the development of society.

What are the foundations laid by the civilization of Sumer, what is its heritage?

The most outstanding achievements of the Sumerian civilization is considered cuneiform writing and a system of education. Sumerian script spread throughout the Middle East, there is evidence of its impact on the creation of Egyptian writing. Sumerian script motivated improvement of writing in many nations, and led to the creation of the alphabet, Aramaic and Phoenician, which gave rise to the ancient and the modern alphabets.

Sumerian system of teaching spread throughout the Middle East, and being adapted, improved and significantly changed in form, has spread throughout the world.

Pupils learned how to write, studied native Sumerian language, mathematics. In particular textbooks, found by researchers, include multiplication tables, squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots, exponential functions, etc.

The second type of discovered mathematical texts involves finding of Pythagorean numbers, extracting cube roots, solution of the equations of a practical nature, etc.

There were found tables with medical, better to say, with pharmaceutical information, and also medical textbooks, but with weird names of diseases.

It is worth mentioning the work of art and crafts by Sumerians. Small sculptural forms, various reliefs, precious jewelry and other works of applied art survived to our time.

Temple architecture, with the filing of the Sumerians, was the beginning of architecture in the states of Mesopotamia and later in neighboring countries.

Cursory mentioning about certain aspects of the Sumerian civilization, we are only denoting the areas and directions in which they were manifested. At the same time we must realize that it was the first major achievements of the human mind.

Deep spiritual and intellectual aspects of the life of the Sumerians reveal us familiarity with their literature. We can not agree with the statement that all Sumerian literature was religious. Epic poems, lyrical essays, myths and proverbs differ in content and form from hymns and laments performed in the temples. The Sumerians were the first creators of epic literature. Kings kept minstrels, who composed works of the exploits of heroes, their fearlessness and adventures, singers and musicians staged theatrical performances.

Schumer, developing as a state system had legislative and legal system. For fairness and justice in the country was responsible the king personally, but in fact both state control and the proceedings were in the hands of administration. This led to the bureaucracy in its worst manifestation, and offences and corruption. It should also be counted among the heritage of Sumer.

The most important result of law formation in Sumer was a formal statement of law in the form of legal codes and regulations. Legal procedure was based on approved written laws. Taxation also had a legal basis.

And, finally, let’s talk about religion and theology. In brief and to the point.

So, Samuel Kramer* identifies three major aspects of religion of the Sumerians:

– Creating cosmology and theology, which became the basis of religions of all the Middle East;

– Creating rites, rituals and ceremonies, and worships;

– Writing hymns, prayers and hymns to the gods;

– Creating myths and epics, glorifying the divine origin and divine involvement in people’s lives.

According to the Sumerian cosmology there was a primary sea, where the Universe originated, “earth-sky”. Between earth and sky the “atmosphere” was moving (the same spirit, breath, wind, air). In this regard, remember “the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters”.

After the separation of heaven and earth the life originated: flora, fauna, people.

The gods ruled the universe, all phenomena and processes of all living and nonliving. But the gods acted in accordance with the plan, too, in harmony with the laws and regulations. The divine pantheon consisted of seven gods, “the fate of the judging”, and fifty “great gods”.

To understand the role of religion in Sumerian society it is important that the presiding deity was recognized as a personal god.

A separate person could have a personal god, this or that Sumerian city, there was the personal god of the union of cities and state. Gods in the image resembled people. But they were immortal and omnipotent.

A huge role in religion and spiritual culture in general poets and writers, bards and minstrels played. Their writings – myths, epics, poems and hymns formed the spiritual environment of the society.

The characters of works, gods and people arranged the universe, performed feats, organizing people’s lives.

Mythology, epics and literature were in the service of religion. At the same time secular literature, poetry, prose, and “folk art”, fables, proverbs evolved on their basis.

Thousands of clay tablets containing these works are a treasure of the world culture.

Here we find stories of the creation of a man and woman from the rib of the god Enki, about the Deluge, ethical religious dogmas, which later became the basis of subsequent religions.

A temple was a living center of the Sumerian city-state. From humble sanctuary the temple turned into a functionally organized religious institution with a caste of priests and the staff, with workers and slaves.

We can assume that the foundations of religious organization and structure also originated in Sumer.

The main motive for determining the behavior of the Sumerians, was the belief that the gods created people to serve themselves. It is required from the person to serve gods faithfully, praise them and ask them for mercy.

Therefore it is not surprising that in the religious literature there is a “motive of Job”. A prosperous and believing person becomes miserable and poor. But does not complain about the fate and continues to praise God. And he is rewarded. This theme, thousands of years later, was developed in the Jewish Book of Job.

Other passing themes should be noted, too. So, baby Sargon Ancient as well as the Old Testament Moses arrives in a basket and is taken to be raised in the royal house. However, it occurs a thousand years before Moses, etc.

Researchers cite dozens of parallels between the Pentateuch and the traditions of the Sumerians (or the first successors of Sumer, Assyria and Babylon).

Sumerians themselves as later both Babylonians and Jews, “God’s chosen” people. According to them, the gods chose Sumer to be a place of their habitation. Sumerians constitute a sacred community, which has a close relationship with the gods, closer than any other nation. High moral of the Sumerians, developed over many years, meets the gods’ will.

Sumerians cultivated kindness and justice, freedom, mercy and compassion in themselves. And human vices as follows were condemned by the society: evil, deceit, perversion, cruelty, etc.

At the same time, that in relation to other nations, they were not indulgent in their evaluations, so the Amorites, the ancestors of the Babylonians and Jews – savages, “Amur … who eats raw meat, who throughout life has not home, and after death he lies unburied”; residents Urartu – boors and fools; people of Marta – servile tribe.

We remind that an overview we presented – brief and sketch and we will try to expand what is necessary for our thesis arguing about continuity and succession of spiritual and material achievements of Sumer by other Asiatic nations, and then the rest of humanity.

Continuity was to take the achievements of Sumer, the assimilation of its experience, its imitation of customs. And, most importantly, the resulting property has stimulated the development and improvement of acquisitions.

Continuity was a two way process. The lands, conquered by Sumer, were included in its material and spiritual space.

On the other hand, neighboring nations, primarily Semitic tribes of Arabia, were peacefully penetrating in Schumer.

With time Sumer was replaced by new nations and people who have took possession of the Sumerian heritage.

Babylon and Assyria, the coastal countries of the Mediterranean, as well as rival countries, such as Persia, later the state of the Hittites absorbed directly or indirectly the heritage of Sumer. There are reasons to believe that the states of antiquity as follows: Carthage, Greece and Rome were influenced by the Mesopotamian civilization.

The social system of the first Sumerian city-states was a rural community. The transition of communal lands into private ownership defined social stratification of the society.

There are officials, artisans, merchants, peasants, and, of course, soldiers. Soldiers and officials were a special group of landowners. They got allotment for their service and for the period of service.

Priesthood was getting particular importance, occupying a privileged position in the society.

And slaves, who were recruited from the prisoners and debtors, were closing the social hierarchy.

Isn’t it a typical structure of almost any ancient society, with some additions and changes specific to a particular state?

However a principle position is that such a system in Sumer was developed for the first time.

The society was ruled by Lugal, “The big man”. The society consisted of free citizens, who the bicameral “Assembly” was elected from, to participate in governing the state. Lugal was “the supreme commander” and personally supervised the construction and maintenance of irrigation facilities.

With time Lugal turned into a monarch, officials in a bureaucratic machine. A monarch became the supreme legislator and rules “on behalf of the all-knowing god of Sun”.

Authorship of governmental legislation belongs to the Sumerians, too.

History of law can not be understood without the ancient Sumerian records of laws and regulations. An interesting fact is that in the Sumerian courts was considered necessary to execute all things in writing.

Courts usually consisted of three people. There are records, describing the procedure of the legal procedure, etc.

Legislation and law, obtained from the Sumerians in several centuries reflected in the so-called Code of Hammurabi. Hammurabi himself ruled Babylon in the eighteenth century BC.

Article of the Code are located according to the areas of the law. Among the main legal categories are considered:

– Ownership. Obviously, there was a state, palace, communal (collective) and private ownership of land.

– Contract Law, which states that obligations arise from contracts and offenses.

– Family Law concerned the life of the community, the status of women in society, the status of children.

– Inheritance law. In Mesopotamia the practice for inheritance was provided either by will or by law.

– Criminal Law. The main provision of the criminal law considered that punishment must be proportionate to the crime (“an eye for an eye”).

The most common penalty was a fine.

The Code permitted lynching, too. At the same time the legislation provided mitigation of guilt, for example for manslaughter.

– Court and judicial proceedings. Judges were appointed by the state. And “council of elders”, appointed from respected citizens, helped them.

The judge ordered to be fair, otherwise he could be punished himself.

For consideration of state crimes, such as infringement of public order or insulting the king, a special court was created.

We talked about the Code of Hammurabi, but before it there were “laws of Eshnunna”, in three-quarters of a similar law of Hammurabi. And before that the laws of rulers Lippe-Ishtar, Ur-Nammu, written in Sumerian, were created.

And they all are projected from ancient Sumer, which have written evidence.

Late states of Mesopotamia, and their near and far neighboring states used finished legislations directly or made feasible, in their opinion, amendments and adjustments. And the Code of Hammurabi was translated into several languages.

Due to usage of the Code of Hammurabi in other Near Eastern countries in our time there was controversy over the “birthright of the Biblical Law”.

Some researchers claim about borrowing many of the provisions of Jewish Law from the earlier Babylonian sources.

The opening of the Sumerian laws texts says about ancient Sumerian sources of legislation.

As already noted, the most important achievement of the Sumerian civilization was the invention of writing.

Administration of the state, school and education, science and literature, medicine, law, culture and art, and finally religion, which were the basis of the Sumerian civilization, were cemented and lasted more than a thousand years, thanks to writing.

To date, there is no final opinion on the origin of the alphabet. However, it is proved that the development of Sumerian cuneiform led to the creation of the first phonetic writing.

The creation of Phoenician letters can be viewed as finding a new more advanced form of writing. A universal distribution of Mesopotamian cuneiform could serve as an impulse for the ancient Phoenicians linguists.

Sumerian script was caused by economic necessity, economy. The first found and decrypted clay tablets contain temple records of economic, business life, such as receiving or issuing of goods, a variety of products, in warehouses in particular, the quantity of pets, etc.

Usage of writing quickly spread in religious purposes, and soon engulfed other areas of activities of the Sumerian society.

It is interesting that the literary works began to be written only a thousand years after the invention of writing.

And the greatest number of literary records refers to the period of the decay of Sumer.

The continuity of Sumerian writing, as a tool for cultural heritage, was provided by its feature. Sumerians invented the concept of syllabogramme. It allowed to use a “sound shell” of this or that symbol, or this or that mark of icon.

This approach gave a ​​ possibility to write down other languages ​​other than Sumerian. Here, first of all, Akkadian language is meant, i.e. Chaldean and Assyrian, languages of ​​states that replaced Sumer.

 

It is remarkable that the literary works of the Sumerians in their artistic value are unique. And if taking into account the fact that they were the first literary works, they can be put at the head of the ancient world literature.

  1. Kramer gives information about the fact that the Assyrians and Babylonians borrowed Sumerian literary works in their entirety. Hittites and Canaanians translated them into their native language. And in their own literature they imitated Sumerian originals.

“The form and content of Jewish literary works and, to some extent, even the Greek ones turned out to be under strong influence of the Sumerian originals”.

Mathematical achievements of the Sumerians were perceived by neighbors in the east and west up to Greece. And even famous Pythagoras lived for several years in Babylon, studying mathematics among many sciences.

Sumerian mathematics left the most noticeable trace in development of the world mathematics and civilization as a whole.

By the above-mentioned mathematical achievements of the Sumerians, which were borrowed by descendants, it is necessary to add significant discoveries in mathematics as follows:

– Creation of a sextuple counting system, which defined the appearance of denary Indo-Arabic counting system;

– Creating on the basis of the sextuple practice of counting the systems of circle and angles, as well as some of the measures used in our days.

 

The subsequent use of medical achievements of the Sumerians can be regarded as documentary evidence. Numerous records firstly in Sumerian, and later on in Akkadian languages, containing detailed medical writings: treatment procedures, descriptions of diseases, etc. reached us.

The art of Sumer left trace in history, especially by its architecture. Sumerian temples with their columns, painted walls and altars, mosaic decoration served as a model of the following temple and church architecture .

Sumerian sculpture, according to the researchers, presumably also created sculpture as an art in many countries, including ancient Greece. Such finds of Sumerians as a set, arch, floor, were borrowed by the ancient world.

We will not forget that a seemingly insignificant, but eternal invention by Sumerians – a cylindrical seal, which to this day is a treasure of officials and financiers.

A significant scientific contribution of Sumer is the creation of astronomy. We should note that the Sumerians did not divide astronomy and astrology.

Astronomy as a science about the Universe, studied celestial bodies, their movements, changes and features. Observations of Venus were made, the dates of solar and lunar eclipses, etc. were fixed.

It can not be said that astronomy was recognized with high achievements. We emphasize only the main fact – it was the first, and this in itself should inspire respect.

After the final absorption of Sumer by the Amorites, known in history as the Babylonians – on behalf of their capital and their country – all the spiritual, cultural and technological heritage of Sumer passed into the hands of conquerors.

Astronomy became a science, distinguished with world achievements under the successor of Sumer, Babylon.

Astrology of the Sumerians was the main of “celestial sciences”. Astrologers studied connections with of celestial phenomena with signs, weather, other natural processes and, most importantly, with society.

Literary heritage of the Sumerians is more noteworthy.

Here it is necessary to give some explanations. Assessing the literary heritage, we consider the literature itself and mythology and epic, too.

Plots of the main mythical and epic works when borrowing them by other cultural communities, passed into the category of either literature or religious scriptures.

Myths, epics and literature of early Sumer were oral creativity.

At the same time, both myths and epos can be viewed as literature with characteristics inherent to this genre. Close intertwining of religious motives and practical description of the life of the Sumerians allow you to analyze spiritual parameters of the Sumerian society.

In the early Sumerian myths there are such subjects as the creation of the world outlook and the creation of a man, it is spoken about the heavenly tabernacles and the Deluge, death and afterlife existence. And at the same time the myths contain descriptions of the gods’ practical actions aimed at organizing life of people, that is, about the behavior of human-like behavior of gods.

So, in the best preserved Sumerian myth “Enki and the World Order”, the creation of the earth and the proclamation of the states’ fate that arise in the future, are presented. Then improvement of land is described. Enki fills the Tigris and Euphrates with invigorating water, makes soil fertile, teaches people to cultivate the land, gives to their usage a variety of cereals and vegetables, etc.

Enki claims the borders of states and resettlement of peoples. Prophets and oracles, sorcerers, which are also fixed for the deity, are not forgotten. It also assigns a goddess of dress, which should organize weaving, sewing and looking after female attire.

It was mentioned above that in Sumerian mythology the creation of the first woman on earth happened from a rib of the god Enki. For this purpose, the goddess Nin-ti was even created, or “Mrs. of a Rib”. A word “TI” in Sumerian means a rib, another meaning of the word “TI” – “enliven”. A mythological explanation of the emergence of a woman on earth was formed according to these interpretations. In another myth we are told how Enki created the first man.

In the poem of Dilmun, we are told about a wonderful country of Dilmun, a paradise of gods.

Researchers note many parallels with the paradise of Jewish of Genesis. Babylon, the heir to the Sumerian idea, arranged its abode of immortals in the same places as the Sumerian authors, to the east of Sumer.

One of the most exciting of Mesopotamian myths is the myth of the Deluge.

Numerous studies prove only one indisputable fact – the Deluge was in fact. To the questions: when the deluge was, was it of a World type and what the real consequences of this catastrophe are – no convincing answer.

Assumptions of deluge time vary from 33981 year (according to the Sumerian list of kings) and 35449 (according to an ancient Greek historian Berosus) BC; some scholars date the deluge for 8000-plus years BC. And finally, the Jewish Torah states that the deluge occurred in 3000 BC.

Information about the Deluge are in multiple sources, there are 13 deluges in Asia, in the New World – 37, in Australia and Oceania – 9. And delugeing period ranged from 5 days to 52 years.

We can not say whether the deluge was World or regional, whether it happened at the same time or we are talking about a few accidents.

The most complete description of the Deluge is in Mesopotamian myths and legends.

In chronological order we note that the description of the deluge is given:

– in the Sumerian myth, where the main character is a Sumerian king Ziusurda;

– in Babylon, where the character Utnapishtim, the only person who survived the deluge and told to Gilgamesh, Mesopotamian priest and king, the hero of many epics, about it;

– and finally, the deluge, which we know about from the Old Testament Book of Genesis.

 

In the mentioned myths, and in the Old Testament a generally similar pattern of global catastrophe is provided.

The crash occurred in the Sumerian-Akkadian legends at the whim of the gods. In the Old Testament story the Deluge – God’s punishment for man’s sins. “The Lord repented that he had made man on the earth”.

These versions have practically the same basic motives and plot as a whole.

Sumerian and Assyrian characters are warned by one of the gods of the Sumerian pantheon. Righteous Noah is warned by Lord himself.

In both cases an Ark is built. The Ark is loaded with representatives of all living beings.

In one case there are crows, in the other – pigeons, which indicate the end of the deluge.

We will repeat that one of the first descriptions of the deluge refers to the XVIII century BC. Also, there are earlier descriptions, which we have mentioned above. Both Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim are real historical figures. In particular, Gilgamesh lived in XXVII BC, was a priest and king simultaneously. His name is found in the myths, epics and particular texts.

We can assume that the oral traditions of the deluge, Ziusurd, Gilgamesh existed first in Sumer, and then in Babylon and Assyria, and subsequently reflected in the Old Testament.

Without touching the religious side of the point, we can say that the written description of the deluge is more than a thousand years older than the description, given in the Jewish Torah. Comparison of oral versions, telling about the deluge, it is not correct.

Another thing is that Judaism, Christianity and Islam have their arguments, whose name – Faith in God.

Babylonian culture, religion, education system were identical to Sumerian ones. And Babylon distributed a mastered domain to its neighbors: the Assyrians, Hittites, Canaanites, Urartu. And these people and nations absorbed innovations of Babylon, too.

However, Babylon, in a sense, was a continuation of Sumer.

The Sumerians are considered the first creators of epic literature. Played by the minstrels to the accompaniment of musical instruments epics and hymns were essential attributes of various celebrations and festivities.

We can claim that the epic as a literary genre, was born in Sumer and was borrowed initially neighbors, and then neighbors of neighbors.

Sumerian hymns were ones of the hardest, we can say, sophisticated genres of Sumerian literature. Hymns were sung in musical accompaniment, and there was a choral performance in conjunction with the declamation.

Hymns were grouped in the following areas: hymns praising the gods or kings, prayers, hymns in honor of the Sumerian temples.

Sumerian solemn worships and prayers became widespread in Mesopotamia and elsewhere in the Middle East, of course taking into account the changes, made according to their own tenets of this or that religion.

There is known a so-called lament. These elegies are different because of artistic beauty, and express deep human feelings. In lament you are told about the destruction of cities or death of relatives and friends. According S. Kramera these expressive works precede, appearing at least in a millennium, laments for Hector of “Iliad” or lament by David for Saul.

Spiritual heritage of Sumer is a dark side of human existence. Demons and other creatures were actively present in everyday life. Diseases, infant mortality, human suffering and misery, all this is the work by evil spirits. There were evil men, sorcerers and witches, too, who also brought misery and misfortune.

You could protect yourself against demons or witches by asking for help to the deity or by magical spells and actions.

There were superstitions, and omens and signs warned a human about ills. And astrologers tried to predict future events.

A demon could live in the house, or wait for a person on the street, and they were a favorite retreat of the cemetery and the ruins. But a common place of their stay was a desert.

On Saturday (Shabbat in Sumerian, Akkadian and Hebrew) both the Babylonians and Assyrians avoided leaving their homes. Saturday was considered the most unlucky day, it was impossible to start any business, and domestic work not performed.

In Mesopotamia the first calendar was made, consisting of twelve months, and a seven-day week was introduced.

From the Sumerians calendar moved to Babylon and Assyria, Canaan, and then further to the Jews. It is interesting that the names of the months in the Babylonian calendar and in the Jewish are almost identical. The seven-day “Babylon” week spread to Rome during the reign of Augustus.

Researchers have found traces of Sumerian heritage in Jewish religious texts.

“Only the most obvious and significant” of them include such episodes as: creation of the universe, the creation of man, paradise, deluge, Law, Tower of Babel and the scattering of people, etc., a total of fifteen matches. “This list – only a small portion lying on the surface”. The number of such examples “will grow and multiply, especially books like Psalms, Proverbs, Laments and the Song of Songs”.*

Continuity and borrowing from Sumerian mythology and religious literature could occur through direct heirs of Sumer – Babylon and Assyria.

Writing the Torah coincides with the time of captivity of the Jews by Babylon. The captivity of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar in 588 BC and their seventy-year stay in an alien environment could not help affecting their culture. Despite the fact that most Jews assimilated or blended into Babylonian society, other Jews keenly felt the need for self-preservation.

The fate of the Jews of the first Babylonian captivity and the preceding Assyrian captivity of Israel did not repeat. However, the impact of the spiritual environment, literature and mythology, religion, life and customs of Babylon could not help leaving a mark in the minds of the Jews.

Sumerian material heritage: inventions and discoveries, technology, experience and organization were borrowed or served as a basis for development and improvement, self-development by countries in the Middle East and then Europe.

The contribution of Sumer in spiritual formation and the development of human civilization is large and not fully evaluated.

 

 

* S. Kramer. SUMERIANS. The first civilization on Earth.

AN ASPECT OF COMPLIMENTARY MEDICINE

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Prof. Dr. Deric N. Bircham, MBA, Ph.D, Ph.D, D.Sc, LL.D, G.JD, FRSA, Doctorates Honoris 

An Aspect of Complimentary Medicine

Background in Complimentary Medicine:

 I Studied Traditional Chinese Acupuncture under the late Lord Pundit Prof. Dr. Sir Anton Jayasuriya, at the South Colombo Hospital and University for Complementary Medicine in Sri Lanka where I received from the International Open University for Complimentary Medicine (Medicina Alternative) Doctor of Science Degree (Honoris Causa)(D.Sc. hc) and after attending several International Seminars in Australia hosted by the Royal Australian General Practitioners Association, I received the Certificate of “Excellence in The Healing Arts”, in Pain Management and Sports Medicine and also received the Laureate of Honor with the appointment of “Royal Physician”. In 1997 the Albert Schweitzer Foundation USA conferred me with the 1997 Albert Schweitzer Prize for Medicine (Complimentary Medicine) and the Indian Council of Natural Medicine and Research in Mumbai conferred upon me the high status for Life of a Pundit (Lord of Learning) for Services to Medical Science, and in 2000 I graduated from The Open International University for Complimentary Medicine with a Doctor of Science (in Complimentary Medicine) (D.Sc.) (Thesis being – Nerve Stimulation). Many Honors and Awards have since followed in Complimentary Medicine from Spain, India, USA and the Institute of Bio-Sensory Psychology in Russia.

Complimentary Medicine/Therapy/Healing is not meant to be a substitute for Western trained Medical Doctors and attention. It is only to be used in conjunction with other forms of treatment given to you by your Medical Doctor, or Practitioner of your choice.

Always seek a Doctor’s advice before trying any form of Complimentary Medicine Treatment. If you feel that you are suffering from severe pain or a severe illness please see your Medical Doctor immediately. There is nothing new in Complimentary Medicine but some things unfortunately become lost in time, so if this dissertation can foster further writings on this topic from others then the benefit goes to those people who do suffer from the various illness and complaints that are mentioned.

In my efforts to help others by using the knowledge and skills gained over the years I use the following “tools of trade” which is the basis for my books on “Nerve Stimulation” and “Nerve Stimulation Therapeutics”.

 As mentioned I trained in Sri Lanka as an Acupuncturist, although I no longer use Needles but instead Non-Invasive Electro-Acupuncture / TENS. (Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation) along with other means of gaining a satisfactory end result for the people I try and help, such as Acupressure and Reiki as such I am considered to be a Health Therapist.

For almost thirty years now it has been known that by using a specific range of ultra-low frequency bursts of energy such as low voltage and very low current micro pulses of electrical stimulation, the natural pain reducing chemicals in the body are released into the system and this reduces the sensation of pain, sometimes only on a temporary basis but it does induce an energy balance effect. This can give a person a feeling of well being, and at the same time help with the reduction of perhaps inflamed tissue, and possibly may also improve the healing of soft tissue injuries as well.

Several noted Scientists believe that the electronic impulses that are activated by this method do override the pain signal that travel along the nerve pathways to the brain. The brain cells perceive pain, and if that pain signal does not reach the brain, then the pain simply cannot be felt.

Another concept is that of Acupuncture. When Acupuncture Needles are inserted into the body at places known as “curing points”, a rapid rise in the rate of blood flows from those points to the brain occurs. The brain reaction is that of naturally causing two very potent pain-relieving hormones called Endorphins and Encephalon’s that act like the drug morphine that are released within the body, these hormones prevent the senses from feeling pain. The relief is all but instantaneous. The same points used apply to Acupressure which can be practiced anywhere at any time and only requires a persons fingers on the meridian points. With the utilization of Nerve Stimulation in place of Needles the same points are located and then stimulated by this method. This is in my opinion a preferable way, as Electrodes are used instead of Needles. No needles, therefore, there is no acute pain felt at any time, although a good Clinician can most times ensure that no pain is felt when using needles, but by using Electronic Nerve Stimulation the elimination of the general mental fear to needles piercing the skin or fear of needles breaking and other fears are totally overcome.

With Nerve Stimulation the circulation of blood within the body improves and there is also an increase in the oxygenation of the blood. Another plus is that there is an improvement in the whole of the metabolism that increases the removal of wastes.

Nerve Stimulation can also be used to relieve migraine, backaches, tension headaches, menstrual pain, rheumatism, and can also be used for many other pain relief treatments. It can be used on the face for toning up facial muscles and to a certain extent for the relief of strain on eyes and so on.

Some clinical studies over recent years indicate that Nerve Stimulation is effective in reducing pain in 20% to 40% of patients treated for chronic pain conditions that is constant pain occurring for long periods. This is considered to be an excellent rate since most chronic pain sufferers have already tried a variety of narcotic drugs and even surgery, but with little to moderate success.

In the treatment of acute pain lasting a relatively short time the success rate of Nerve Stimulation usage is in the range of 80% to 90%. This is attributed to the fact that most patients have no drug history and therefore have not built up immunity to pain relieving mechanisms within their own body.

Nerve Stimulation does not require Medication of any form, it is also extremely safe, and above all there are No Side Effects.  Knowing this a person being treated can relax completely which also assists in their problem being rectified or at the very least improved upon.

The second method that I sometimes use is that after the Nerve Stimulation treatment; just soothe the problem area, such as a back problem, with very gentle massage using Avocado Oil and other such natural oils that also in my opinion help in the recovery process.

Pure Avocado Oil is rich in 11 Vitamins and 14 Minerals (especially the skin vitamins A, C & E). These vitamins help repair body tissue and maintain the health of the skin. In the Avocado, these vitamins exist in an unusual water-soluble form allowing easy absorption into the skin and do not leave any greasy residue that is symbolic of synthetic oils.

Essential fatty acids are so important for healthy skin that they are sometimes classified as the special skin vitamin (or Vitamin F), because pure Avocado Oil is very rich in these essential fatty acids and vitamins, it is therefore the ideal daily cocktail for your skin. Avocado Oil contains an antibacterial agent that makes it effective in combating certain infections and skin disorders. It is beneficial for dermatitis, eczema, nappy rash and the like. Avocado oil is one of the very few Oils in the world that is richly endowed with anti-oxidants. This is the one important reason why Avocado Oil can assist to help prevent premature aging of the skin.

The third form of treatment I use is that after the above treatments and of course depending on the area being treated, if applicable I would then use either a Heat Pack or a Cold Pack depending on what the problem is that I am trying to ease.

If it is a Heat Pack, always use it with a Quilted Cover over the Pack. Heat Therapy is often used for complaints such as -: Muscle Soreness, Minor Aches and Pains, Sinus Pain and Congestion, Arthritic Pain, Cramps, Lower Back Pain.

If it is a Cold Pack that is to be used, always remove the Cold Pack from the quilted cover over the Pack. Cold Therapy is often used for complaints such as -: Scrapes, Sprains, Strains, Cuts (helps stop bleeding), Minor burns / scalds, Muscle spasms, Headaches, Sports related injuries, Insect bites, Bruises, Toothache, Sore eyes, etc.

For additional information refer to my two books, “Nerve Stimulation” and “Nerve Stimulation Therapy” available from Amazon Books USA.

 

LINGUOAKMEOLOGY – AN INTEGRATIVE BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE

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Prof. Lidia Dubrovina, Grand PhD

Russian Federation

Saint-Petersburg

Linguoakmeology – an Integrative Branch of Knowledge.

The language educational process is effective In case different branches of knowledge are integrated. In the focus there is a question of successful development of a personality, of achieving AKME as the highest level of one’s creative activity. In connection with this we are developing a new branch of knowledge – linguoakmeology – the knowledge about language and communicative development of a personality while learning through life, about the creative activity of both a teacher and a student of linguistics. Linguoakmeology studies the laws and principles of a student self-development, the self-realization of his creating potential, the factors providing his achieving AKME.

There is a close connection between linguoakmeology and philosophy that is put into action in two ways: methodological and philosophical. The main methodological principles are the following: the concepts and categories acquisition; the correct choice of the research strategy; the use of akmeology techniques; the generalization of the data received during the research.

The philosophical approach allows to look upon things from the point of view of human values and ideals. Linguoakmeology is based on the philosophy of interaction which is understood as a multilevel process, as an objective law of being.

The essence of the interaction lies in full expressing and developing of all possibilities, existing in reality (material and spiritual) at all levels (Iyesuitov A.N.:2003). In reference to linguoakmeology the philosophy of interaction may be understood as an interaction of an instructor and a student. The educator presents through his personality a teacher, a scientist, an akmeologist.

Linguoakmeology presents the interaction of linguistics and language education, of akmedevelopment of language and communicative abilities of a student. Learning any language is the interaction of getting language knowledge and using it in speech activity. The development of any language learner is the interaction of two processes: the acquisition of spiritual qualities and self-realization.

A special attention should be paid to the interaction of language education and culture realization which lies in students acquiring the culture of the country of the language studied.

Language education is the interaction of intellectual and spiritual development. Various patterns of interaction depend on individual and personal features of the representatives of both sides – teachers and learners, on their motivation and demands, on the ability to teach and the ability to do the language, on their mutual understanding and wish to achieve the best result (AKME).

Any kind of human being activity (material and spiritual) is the interaction between the original idea of the doer and its embodiment. In the linguoakmeologocal process there is an interaction of the language instructor’s creative activity and the language learner’s system of its acquisition, the interaction of the image of the teacher’s activity result and the image of the student’s learning activity result. This is necessary to make the goals come true. The interaction of all the elements of the system is the source of the students’ language development.

To foresee the results of this development we make use of the theory of synergy. This theory enriches the category of development. For linguoakmeology it is important how to organize the process of language learning, how to make the

learners reach AKME step by step (2, p.22). On the way the learners would face all sorts of difficulties they ought to overcome.

Kuzmina N.V. (4) is the author of fundamental akmeology , the theory which allows to see all kinds of factors (objective, subjective and others), lying in the basis of creative activity of any language instructor and language learners, of the development process improvement.

Linguoakmeology takes into consideration the ideas of the akmeological theory of productive education, providing for the resultative language learning. The theory helps to control the quality of education, the models are resorted to in case of analysis, evaluation, self-evaluation and as a source of raising the level of language and speech activity development.

The connection of linguoakmeology with psychology is significant for language activity development of the learners. The creative activity of a language instructor is closely connected with such psychological factors as perception, motivation, acquisition, memory and others.

Another thing we ought to consider is the systematic approach, worked out by Kuzmina N.V. The essence of it is that the personality of an educator is integrated into the system of interpersonal relations, educational system which can easily be modeled and projected. Using this approach, Kuzmina N.V. understands the concept of “model” as a system of ideal and sufficient structural elements the interaction of which characterizes the education system being available. Any educational system can be looked upon as independent and includes a certain number of subsystems which can develop autonomously.

Kuzmina N.V. is the follower of the theoretical  views of Ananyev B.G. concerning a complex approach to a personality studying. A language instructor and a language learner might be studied as individs, subjects of educational activity and individuals.

Linguoakmeology takes into account the subjective character of language and speech development, the individual character of this process; the multiaspect of a personality development.

There is a close connection between linguoakmeology and pedagogy (theory of education). Thus, linguoakmeological categories like “educational system”, “creative activity of a language instructor”, “self-development” and some others are borrowed from the theory of education. This connection is the basis of solving such problems as clearing out the peculiarities of “microakme” of the learner at each step of the educational way. The learner should achieve AKME at the end due to the initializing his own educational activity.

To sum up, linguoakmeology is an integrative branch of knowledge. By its nature it possesses fundamental as well as applied character.

 

 

References

  • Акмеология: Учебное пособие / Деркач А.А., Зазыкин В.Г. – Спб.: Питер, 2003.
  • Бранский В.П., Пожарский С.Д. Социальная синергетика и акмеология. – СПб.: Политехника, 2002.
  • Иезуитов А.Н. Философия взаимодействия. – СПб: ЦКБ ВМФ, 2003.
  • Кузьмина Н.В. Акмеологическая теория повышения качества подготовки специалистов образования. – М.: Исслед. центр проблем качества подготовки специалистов, 2001.
  • Кузьмина Н.В. Предмет акмеологии. – Спб.: Политехника, 2002.

“TERRORISM & MEDIA”

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MAHINDA BALASURIYA

Grand D.Sc. Grand Ph.D. M.Phil. B.Sc.

 RETIRED INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE

(Chief of Police)

Sri Lanka

Terrorism and Media are inseparable. The future of “Terrorism” totally depend on the international and national, publicity given by the media regarding any terrorist incident soon after it happens. The designed psychological effect expected by the terrorist depend on the magnitude of publicity. If no publicity is given by the media for terrorist acts, “Terrorism” would not have flourished. Media is a catalyzer for terrorism.

Defining Terrorism:

Terrorism has been used in so many ways, to refer to so many different (though often partially overlapping) kinds of acts, that it has become rather blurred in its usage. Even different agencies of the same state have used definitions which are at odds with another. The US State Department, for example has defined terrorism as “Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non combatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. But the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines it rather differently, as “The use of serious violence against persons or property, or the threat to use such violence, to intimidate or coerce a government, the public, or any section of the public in order to promote political, social or ideological objectives”.

Yet again in 1990, the US Department of Defence described terrorism as “The unlawful use of, or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property, to coerce and intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives”. The variations between these definitions are significant enough to generate a measure of confusion and potentially unhelpful ambiguity.

Professor Bruce Hoffman, has helpfully argued that terrorism involves politically motivated violence or threatened violence, “designed to have far-reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target; carried out by a sub-national or non-state, non-uniformed organization with an identifiable chain of command or conspiratorial cell structure. Terrorism is “the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the pursuit of political change˝. All terrorist acts involve violence or the threat of violence. Terrorism is specifically designed to have far reaching psychological effects beyond the immediate victim (s) or object of the terrorist attack.

It is meant to instill fear within, and thereby intimidate, a wider “target audience” that might include a rival ethnic or religious group, an entire country, a national government or political party, or pubic opinion in general.

Terrorism is designed to create power where there is none or to consolidate power where there is very little. Though the publicity generated by their violence, terrorist seek to obtain the leverage, influence, and power they otherwise lack to effect political change on either a local or an international scale.

It is clearly seen that there exist so many competing and varying definitions of terrorism. “Terrorism is a method which can be used for an infinite variety of goals. Walter Lacquer reports that there are more than a hundred definitions in the literature. How is one to choose among them? One reason terrorism is no difficult to define is that it is often interpreted as a prerogative concept. Whatever the final meaning of the term ought to be those who are identified as terrorists are said to be deserving of blame. Another reason why it is difficult to define “terrorism”, “terrorist”, etc., is that these terms are used in highly emotive settings. We have a pre-definitional sense that they are associated with death, violence, and war.

It should be noted that terrorism is a special case of civil conflict, involving violence by small groups of terrorists who chose specific targets in order to intimidate watching audiences. The performance of acts of terrorism does not require large numbers; hence it is an economical and efficient weapon for the weak groups. Although terrorism does not cause the high number of victims that protracted civil wars do; it outrages and horrifies the public and attracts extensive media courage. In part this disproportionate effect is due to the timing and form of violence, but it is also due to the fact that the victim of terrorism are most often unsuspecting and unprepared civilians rather than the armed forces of the state.

Governments may thus be more reluctant to enter into negotiated settlements with groups using terrorism than with groups employing other means of violence. It is also possible that one reason campaign of terrorism are protracted is because they are not destructive despite their heavy psychological impact. Emotional reactions to terrorism may be momentarily intense.

Many persons are at present quite properly concerned with the threat to constitutionalism, to rights of liberties, by their governments’ reaction to the threat posed by terrorism. Few of us consider, however, that terrorism itself might become a threat to the legitimacy of those states that depend upon the consent of the governed.

The terrorist act and the victim usually have symbolic significance. The stock value of the act is enormously enhanced by the power of the symbol that the target represents. The whole point is for the psychological impact to be greater than the actual physical act. Terrorism is indeed a weapon of the weak.

Terrorist movements are invariably both outmanned and outgunned by their opponents, so they employ tactics in an effort to gain more attention than any objective assessment of their capabilities would suggest that they warrant. Bin Laden, for example, referred to the “Twin Towers” as “Icons” of Americas military and economic power.

Terrorism is a by-product of broader power in all of its forms – political, economic, military, ideological and cultural. These are the same forms of power that characterize the forces of western – led globalization.

Terrorism that threatens international stability, and particularly US global leadership is centered on power-based political causes that are enduring; the weak against the strong, the disenfranchised against the establishment, and the revolutionary against the status quo. Over simplified generalizations about poverty and terrorism or any other single variable are circumstances of a serious argument.

Understanding the Media’s Role:

The media has often been cited in the context of a terrorist incident as another important factor in the modern terrorist’s arsenal. During an attack, a terrorist often benefits from a media “amplification effect”, as terrorist activities are broadcast by the media to a much larger audience than would normally be available. Today’s post modern terrorist has learned a valuable lesson about our world: television and other media can be manipulated as a vital link between the terrorist and the intended audience.

Forging this link requires an act which is “newsworthy” – this has come to outrageous, even barbaric forms of attack. Terrorists accordingly attempt to display “showmanship” in order to get adequate airtime. This nexus of interest between the media who thrive on sensational news and terrorists are only too happy to provide sensational events which has raised questions. Brian Jenkins, a well-known terrorist expert from Kroll Associates, has stated “terrorists want a lot of people watching, and a lot of people listening, not a lot of people dead˝. I consider terrorism as violence for effect. Terrorists choreograph dramatic incidents to achieve maximum publicity and, in that sense, terrorism is a theater”.

If it is understood that terrorists are putting on a show, it becomes easier to understand how they manipulate events to their own satisfaction. The most basic reason for terrorism today is to gain recognition for a particular cause; the best way, to do that is through the media, whose job is to provide a worldwide audience with nearly immediate information.

Publicity is part of the terrorist action itself. The terrorist operation is “propaganda of the dead”. The resonance the terrorists hope to find in the media is calculated. Therefore, government adherence to a firm attitude is made more difficult by the publicity the terrorist expects are which indeed is given to terrorist action in the media.

In the Mumbai attack at “Taj Hotel”, the media had a live telecast for almost two days continuously. This gave very wide international publicity for the terrorists. This action of continued telecast should not have been done by the Indian media. It hampered the national security of India by unnecessary comments about the rescue operations and the general security arrangements to counter terrorist attacks in India. The advantage was to the terrorists but not to the public or to the authorities.

Another similar television story in Israel, which is ironic in many ways because the successful rescue of the hostages in Entebbe relied solely on the secrecy of the operation. The fact that Israeli TV later apologized to the Federal Government showed that again there was some soul – searching alone and that they came to the conclusion that at that point in the development it was very wrong go to public on the air.

Working with the Media:

Emergency response teams in the past have had cameras thrust at them in other emergency situations. Some responders become upset and angry with such crews and refuse to answer questions. Other responders may being talking to the first member of the news media who asks them a question. Both of these responses should be avoided. Responders must be made aware that the media has a right – indeed, an obligation – to report the news to the public. Once responders realize they and the media share similar responsibilities, responder irritation should be minimized.

Incident Phase:

After a terrorist event, the media need facts and accurate information. This is what the public expect. To facilitate this process, response agencies should co-ordinate their efforts and follow these guidelines to provide information as quickly as possible.

  • Do not mislead
  • Answer all questions truthfully
  • Promise to get information
  • Become familiar with deadlines
  • Do not overstate a problem: and
  • Distribute the facts.

At this stage of an incident, expect chaos and confusion yet, these simple rules should allow responders and incident commanders to handle most questions.

Do not forget what may seem to be an oxymoron: journalism ethics of course, some display nothing of the sort, but most journalists have a strong sense of fair play about getting a good story. It is important to establish trust with the media. Learn how errors can be redressed. Agencies and responders should know that some journalists may record interviews. Responders should understand and appreciate the definitions on the record, off the record, background and confidential sources, and the need to compare sources.

 

Special Problems Encountered when dealing with the Media:

While the media can be an asset, they can also present problems. For example, investigative reporters continue to harrass officials. When dealing with these reporters, never hide problems. Should be completely honest with them within the bounds of agency guidelines. Responders should never answer a question that he or she is not authorized or capable of answering properly. They will only put their own and their agency’s reputation at risk. “No comment” does not put off a good investigative reporter. It is better for responders to talk to the media that an answer is unknown and to then search for the appropriative answer.

Media Competition:

Media competition can have a damaging effect. It is important to remember that every reporter is out to “scoop” the competition. Sometimes even during emergencies, media agencies looking for a scoop might print only half of the story.

How the Media can help:

The media can often be of help by performing certain emergency management functions, such as alerting the public with bulletins or a radio and TV alerts. Print Media can also get large amounts of information to the public. In addition, the media provide data that can be read and reread for clarity:

  • Casualty lists
  • Condition of the injured
  • Investigative reports
  • Protective locations
  • Shelter locations
  • Disaster assistance Centers locations and
  • Safety tips.

During an emergency or terrorist incident, the media may rely emergency public information through the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS). This is a system by which emergency managers may formally direct radio and television stations to transmit immediate public warnings.

Dealing with the Media on Scene:

If a particular agency has not already set a media policy, the following will provide some overview of how to deal with the media. Most emergency agencies co-operate with information gathering activities as long as overall rescue operations or investigations are not jeopardized. However, by dealing with a news crew may try to get a shot of operations.

Once it has been determined that the operations may involve interaction with the media, the incident commander should immediately appoint a Public Information Officer (PIO) to deal with all press issues.

The PIO’s duties and responsibilities include relaying the official position of agencies, he or she shall be considered the spokesperson for the operation concerning the following:

  • Department policy
  • Procedure
  • Operation and tactics; and
  • Previous and ongoing investigations/incidents

Access to the Emergency Site:

Reporters need to get as close as to the story as possible keep in mind the following rules when treating site access:

  • Allow TV and print photographers to get as close to the scene as possible with safety as well as that of emergency personnel;
  • Give reporters a tour of the scene.
  • Never use danger as all excuse to keep the press away;
  • Remember: TV needs pictures immediately.

Allowing the media to enter the scene of a terrorist attack is ultimately the responsibility of the incident commander. If the media is allowed access, the PIO should conduct a safety briefing for them. Most recent news crews have worked in dangerous situations, but do not take their experience for granted. It must be ensured that everyone is aware of the hazards that may be encountered.

Security of Information Vs. The Public Right to know:

Over the past two decades there has been a significant increase in the relationship between the media and terrorism. With the attacks on the world Trade Centre and the Murrah Federal building in Oklahoma city, this fact has been brought to the forefront. Many terrorism experts and media professionals will no doubt continue to debate the issue of the public’s right to know versus the need to keep sensitive information secure.

Peace Journalism (PJ):

Peace Journalism is a broader, and more accurate way of framing stories drawing on the insight of conflict analyzes and transformation.

The PJ approach provides a new road map tracing the connections between journalists, their sources, the stories they cover and the consequences of their reporting – the ethics of journalistic intervention. It opens up a literacy of non-violence and creativity as applied to the practical job of everyday reporting.

A brief history of Peace Journalism:

Johan Galtung, Peace Professor and Director of the TRANSCEND Peace and development network, first began using the term “Peace Journalism” in the 1970’s. Galtung noticed that a great deal of war Journalism was based on the same assumptions as “Sports Journalism”.  There was a focus on “Wining as the only thing” in a zero – sum game of two parties.

Working with Galtung himself, conflict and peace forums, based in London, took up his original model and developed it through creative dialogues with Journalists and other professionals, mainly in a series of annual conferences at Taplow Court. Peace Journalism is based on the proposition that decisions Journalists make while covering conflicts tend inescapably to contribute to the momentum towards war or the momentum towards peace.

Communication Theory of Terrorism:

This is a famous theory adopted by the terrorist organizations in the world. In discussions on the purposes of insurgent terrorism and prominent and sometimes even paramount place is reserved by analysts of terrorism to the communication aspect. Martha Crenshaw, for instance writes; “The most basic reason for terrorism is to gain recognition or attention”. The role of the media is vital here. J. Bowyer Bell also sees the advertising function of terrorism as the most important one. In the same vein Francis M. Watson holds that terrorism must not be defined only in terms of violence, but also in terms of propaganda. The two are both in operation together.

Another revolutionary theorist, the German – American Johan most, put it more explicitly.

“Everyone now knows, that more perfectly executed the attempt, the greater the propagandistic effect.” Further in 1960’s the Brazilian Carlos Marighela reinvented the “Armed Propaganda” and the symbolic use of violence as a means of communication and recommend it in his Mini-Manual of the Urban Guerrilla.

Martha Crenshaw also stresses the role of violence as communication to various audiences, without giving up terrorism as revolution model. She quotes for instance, one revolutionary leader, Ramadare Abane, as saying; “We must have blood in the headlines of all newspapers”. One behavioural expert, the Australian – American psychiatrist F.Hacker, put the role of mass communication as a casual agent especially high. Offering the suggestion; “If one could cut out publicity, I would say you could cut out 75% of the national and international terrorism”.

Terrorism and Propaganda:

Propaganda is defined by the North Atlantic Alliance as any information, ideas, doctrines or special appeals disseminated to influence the opinion, emotions, attitudes or behaviour of any specified group in order to benefit the sponsor either directly or indirectly. Propaganda and terrorism are identical as they both seek to influence a mass audience in a way that is intended to benefit the sponsor. But while terror has a singular purpose – including fear and uncertainty – propaganda can and does same way imaginable purpose from religion to politics to commerce. Indeed, terror might be seen a sub-species of propaganda. Yet, terrorism is also a sub-species of revolution, which is a struggle for power.

Theorist Hazan suggests that propaganda must first attract an audience attention by penetrating the “Absorption screen”, a relatively easy task, and that, to be effective, it must then penetrate the “Personality Screen”. During the latter process the beliefs, values, attitudes, concepts, expectations etc., of individuals in the audience relate to the propaganda message, simply, clarity and label it and produce an opinion. The individual acts has been influenced by the message and not because of his previous views. Eventually his personality is changed.

Television appearances by terrorist leaders and spokesman also provide occasions for justification. On this medium, the “presence” of the speaker influences audiences more than his or her words. This to the great advantage of the terrorists if propaganda is half the terrorist’s armoury, and perhaps the decisive half in terms of survival, there is surely a strong base for government counter-terrorist measures to contain a psychological component. The problem, of course, is public opinion at any form of propaganda, and politician’s consequent unwillingness to touch the subject.

Conclusion:

Terrorism and media are interconnected and survival of terrorism is dependant of media. The “amplification effect” of the media is the key factor. If no national and international publicity is gained by an act of terrorism, the incident or the attack will go unnoticed. Then the terrorist do not achieve the desired goal.

The public has a right to know about any terrorist attack. It is the responsibility of the media to educate the public. Role of the media is vital in emergency management after a terrorist attack. The public expect the assistance of the media immediately to get information about casualties and dead persons. In this regard media plays a key role. But at times the media provides information regarding wanted suspects and regarding counter terrorist operations and regarding the progress of investigations. This is very counter productive. Also the false propaganda at times alarms the public. This too is counter productive. As a result operation and investigations are hampered to a great extent.

But it will be the responsibility of government authorities, specially the Police to provide quick and accurate information to the media other than secret information. If this is not done the media is compelled to gather information from other sources and to publish which might mislead the public. This is a very unsatisfactory situation.

Electronic media and the printed media is the link between the terrorist and the public. Therefore, the media has a great obligation to maintain a balance. This could be done by truthful and quick media reporting only, A.F.Hanker has commented, “If one could cut out publicity, it could cut out 75% of the national and internationalism”. Then the respective governments could fight to end terrorism more easily.

However it is, the media has a right and an obligation to the public to report about terrorist incidents. The government authorities also should co-operate with the media when reporting terrorist incidents. But the media should not act as a catalyzer and should not facilitate and promote terrorism when reporting terrorist incidents.

References:1

  1. Terrorism – The new world disorder by Nicholas Fatin, Boris Koshinko and Jaanne K.Lekee (2008)
  2. Terrorism – How to Respond, by Richard English. (2006)

 

  1. What Terrorist Want – Understanding the Terrorist Threat by Louse Richardson (2005)

 

  1. Terror and Consent by Philip Bobbitt.

 

  1. Contemporary Research on Terrorism, by Paul Wilkinson and A.M.Stewart (1987)

 

  1. Peace Journalism by Annabel McHoldirick (2006)

 

  1. Political Terrorism by Alex P. Schimid (1984)

 

  1. Defeating Terrorism by Russel D.Howard (Colonel US Army, Reid L.Sawyer Major US Army) – (2003)

 

  1. Counter Terrorism by Christopher Kozlow (1997)

 

INCURABLE CAN BE CURED

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Prof. Izueitov A.

In recent years “Alzheimer’s disease” (autism, dementia) has acquired truly catastrophic proportions. It affects more than 35 million people on the planet, and the number of patients is growing steadily. The fact is that not all people, especially older people, are able to withstand the enormous and diverse spiritual burden falling to their lot. This leads these people to “Alzheimer’s disease”, stimulating untimely death, distressful to themselves and others around them.

In April 2013 the U.S. President Barack Obama officially announced the start of a U.S. special mega-project BRAIN (Research through advancing innovative neurotechnologies). The U.S. government has already allocated the first advance – $ 100 million for this mega-project, designed for 15 years.

Of course, any new technologies, including new neurotechnologies, in order to be truly successful and effective, can and should be based on the new philosophical and ideological concept, really revealing and explaining the nature of various phenomena, including the brain, as a special phenomenon, and the causes of the disease, connected with the failure of the normal activity of the brain. It is “Alzheimer’s disease”, still having no fundamentally new explanations, and therefore not receiving complex and effective treatment.

In fact, the generally accepted point of view on “Alzheimer’s disease”, which is given from the materialist points of view, in its essence, one-sidedly constrained.

When “Alzheimer’s disease” occurs, nerve cells (neurons) in brain tissue atrophy. In the intervals between them (“fissures”) “plaques” of beta amyloid protein are formed. These “plaques” gradually “stick together” into insoluble clumps and block the passage through neurons, pressing them in from different sides, and thereby breaking the structure of neurons, impulses, coming from the brain, regulating the activity of the human mind and ensuring its normal state and development. In fact, it is just a statement of the phenomenon, moreover, one-sided, but not its real explanation. Currently, “Alzheimer’s disease” is considered incurable. Medical and natural remedies can only slightly weaken it and slow down its development.

There are known the symptoms of “Alzheimer’s disease” as follows: sustainable forgetfulness, short memory weakening, sudden irritability, unmotivated aggression, hallucinations. As we can see, they all have a spiritual nature. They are based on violation of the “spiritual norm” for human consciousness and behavior.

It has been observed that people as follows are more often exposed to “Alzheimer’s disease” – “introverts”, in their essence, individualists and egotists, internally oriented in its material and spiritual activities exclusively on themselves, essentially their own interests and needs, both material and spiritual. People – “extroverts”, social activists, internally focused on their very different interaction, material and spiritual, with other people, much less to some extent are exposed to “Alzheimer’s disease”.

“The philosophy of interaction” (“bialism”), a fundamentally new philosophy of the 21st century, created by A.N. Iezuitov in 1992 and received international recognition, puts forward and justifies its own explanation of “Alzheimer’s disease”, corresponding to its special nature, and offers its own recipes for treatment.

“The philosophy of interaction” (“PI”) comes from the fact that the whole reality, existing beyond and independently of its perception, represents the interaction at a very different level and in different events (living and non-living) of various principles, ultimately the material and spiritual, as their complementarity, mutual enrichment and partial mutual transition of one principle to another under certain conditions. Only one of the principles may also dominate in the interaction. Material beginning is perceived directly-sensually and directly-measurably. The spiritual sense is perceived by internal feeling and is directly-immeasurable. It is measurable by its real result. Being in principle in by its nature sovereign, material and spiritual principles, in reality do not exist one without and beyond another. Thus a measure of the presence of one principle in another may be very different. A spiritual principle by its nature has no space-time and speed limit, it is pervasive. At the same time, the spiritual principle is always in a certain degree materially “burdened”, which affects its real manifestation. Spirituality represents the internal purpose (predisposition, readiness), peculiar to all real events (living and non-living) and focused on its financial expression.

Any internal disease means disturbance in an organism by various reasons and at different levels of interaction peculiar to the organism material and spiritual principles. Cure of an organism is restoration in it of disturbed interaction of material and spiritual principles. In the structure of a brain (macro and micro) as interaction of the material and spiritual principles the spiritual principle is dominating, at all levels and in all structures. In order to understand and explain the nature of “Alzheimer’s disease”, a living brain absolutely does not need to be opened and examined directly, especially at the cell (neuron level). Such a dissection still will not work really. A dominant one in the brain is the spiritual principle, which is not directly observable and measurable. We will see only the actual material structure of the brain and will not comprehend its spiritual and meaningful essence at any micro level.

More specifically, in “Alzheimer’s disease” in the brain happens a real violation of natural “binary interaction” between the material and the spiritual principles, inherent in each neuron, when it conducts a nerve impulse as the interaction of the material and the spiritual principles. The material principle becomes weaker of a neuron, too, and beta amyloid protein by its material principle in the “plaque”, overcoming the resistance of the material principle of the neuron, as the interaction of the material and spiritual principles, “sticks together” with the material principle of another “plaque”, appearing in the “fissure”, materially blocking the neuron. This happens from different sides of the neuron. It is compressed, thereby breaking the interaction between the material and spiritual principles in the neuron.

Furthermore, neurons may themselves by their individual nature be “introverts” and “extraverts”, which really affects the nature of the interaction between them.

It is also reasonable that with age (aging of the organism) the interaction in the brain between neurons and in neurons decreases, and a real opportunity for the emergence of “Alzheimer’s disease” in a man increases.

In order for neuron to become again a “conductor” it is necessary to stir up the spiritual principle of the neuron, which, partly turned in its material principle, will materially strengthen the neuron and it will create a material and real barrier for “plaques sticking”, which by their material principle from different sides materially influence through the “fissures” on the neuron, extending the “fissure” and materially affecting the neighboring neurons, disrupting their structure and material and spiritual interaction between the neurons and within the neurons.

The spiritual principle of the neuron really succumbs itself to strengthening under the influence on it (inside and outside), which restores the disturbed “binary interaction” in the neuron and between the neurons and ultimately – in the whole brain system controlling consciousness (from micro – to macro).

A man is capable by his spiritual and volitional action to strengthen the spiritual principle in his own organism, including the neuron, and thus result in a natural interaction the spiritual principle of the neuron with its substantive principle, significantly strengthening the neuron in a material respect. The spiritual principle of the neuron at the same time turns in the material principle, in its turn, complementing and reinforcing it.

A person can and should first of all by himself and with outer help spiritually overcome “Alzheimer’s disease” and spiritually resist it. Strengthening and development of human spiritual strength and increasing his spiritual positive can be done in various ways and means: spiritual self-empowerment, spiritual makeup from communicating with spiritually-resonance-saturated people, with rising-up-spirit art and spiritually saturated and spirited nature by the man himself – all this actually contributes to strengthening of the spiritual principle in a man at all levels, and thus may actually prevent the emergence and development in a person “Alzheimer’s disease”, contribute to real getting over it.

The inner purpose in a human is not self-isolation, but the most diverse spiritual interaction with everything, that is quite real, is effective prevention of the occurrence in a human of “Alzheimer’s disease” and of its effective treatment.

It is possible to experimentally, by its real result, set measure of a spiritual effect on neurons, which really restores the impaired actual material and spiritual interaction between neurons and in neurons, and thus, identify a real and specific measure of curing a person from “Alzheimer’s disease” or, in any case, it is significant and vitally important attenuation.

These are the principal recommendations, which are offered by the “PI” for the prevention and treatment of “Alzheimer’s disease”. They are organically included in the “spiritual therapy” (including the “velvet-therapy”), proposed and developed by the “PI”. There are reasons to say that velvet really belongs to a particular role in prevention and treatment of “Alzheimer’s disease”. Elderly people, regularly wearing headgear on the head of black (dark) velvet, as a rule, have not suffer and do not suffer from autism and dementia. This is very significant. There is a real confirmation of the effectiveness of the “velvet-therapy” in the treatment of dementia.

If the proposed by the “PI” ways and means of prevention and treatment of “Alzheimer’s disease” are not absolutely guaranteed and the only effective, then they are applied completely voluntary for a patient, and, no doubt, in any way will not harm the organism in its complex treatment.

In case of acceptance of the U.S. leadership, the “Philosophy of Interaction” under IHAC could join to the implementation of the mega project BRAIN.

 

 

Grand-Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of philological sciences, professor, academician, A.N. Iezuitov (Russia, Saint-Petersburg, IUFS). – Founder of the program.