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Beslan Ozdoev, PhD.

“THE PHILOSOPHY OF INGUSH LANGUAGE AND CULTURE”  The eighth page of monograph refers to “linguasophy” in the phrase : “…We could say that the ancestors of Ingush, as conscious native-speakers of present language-philosophy, or linguasophy, were the authors not only of Ingush, but of many other cultures and civilizations of the ancient world “. On the sixth page it is said also about the philosophical and communicative nature of the Ingush language. Originally we were planning to call the monograph “LINGUASOPHY OF INGUSH LANGUAGE AND CULTURE”. Now, they suggest to use the term “metasophy” instead of “linguasophy”. All monograph was actually written as metosophy. But it was decided not to hurry with the application of a new branch of knowledge and to present everything under the term of philosophy. It was clear that metosophy may include sciences, that philosophy does not cover, and in this sense it is wider. So the philosophy can be taken as a part of metosophy, along with other sciences. Met – language, place, view (“mettar”- he thought, imagined), were presented (meta d), reset on a place(met ot), in the Ingush language. Sophy – wisdom in the Greek language. So phi e – is translated from the Ingush as “what am I” ? Task of wisdom is to answer the question – what am I ? For this you need to restore the initial presentation, the data in the wisdom of the language. The term “met” is consonant to the first part of the word “metaphysics” and the word “meter” – dimension. It is well known that the man is the measure of all things. Considering these meanings and more pleasing sound to the ear  instead of the term “linguasophy” we introduce the term “metosophy”. The invention,  besides the communicative and philosophical nature of language, has demanded the change of opinion on almost all branches of human knowledge.

All sciences need mind and language, and to make the synthesis of mind and language, “science of science” – is a daunting task. Metosophy is a wisdom both of synthesis of mind, both of language.

THE ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY FROM METOSOPHY Mind in the eternity of past knew “I spirit” (Az) and “I soul” (So) and will know it in the eternity of future. About a million years ago there were changes in the psyche, and between spirit and soul a barrier appeared. Languages with one I or one pronoun of the 1st person singular began to appear. In the future, the barrier between the spirit and the soul will become thinner and mind will discover again the “I spirit” and “I soul”, or Atman and Akhamkara of Indian philosophy, or Atma and Boddhi in the philosophy of buddhism, or Az vozdam (I will render the spirit ) and vengeance to me( I revenge by soul ) of christianity. To repair the link between the “I spirit” and “I soul” and to return the lost metasophy,mysteries and philosophies were installed, prophets and revelations were sent. The eternity of the past belonged to metasophy, the eternity of the future will belong to it.

When the barrier between the spirit and the soul will become thinner, people will not study, but will have all the knowledge in itself, and babies will have a tongue in the wombs of mothers and in the cradle, as it was in the beginning and at the age of metasophy. The possession of tongue before the birth and the child’s communication with his mother, was natural at that time. People will be born without the participation of seminal substance, in which the conditionality of five senses and five elements, and with the help of verb – of a flame (al) from “I spirit” and with the light of  soul (sa) from “I soul”. Jesus was conceived as a spirit and word of Allah and spoke from the cradle, according to the teachings of Islam. Spirit (verb-flame) and the word (light-soul)of the sage with the “I spirit” (Az) and “I soul” (So) could also engender children, who spoke in the cradle, and even from the womb of substance. Language-the tongue of the spirit and language- representation of the soul are older than body, physiology and organs of speech. In ancient times it was customary to start discussing in the spirit of wisdom with any questions or affirmations.   Aristotle believed that philosophy begins with the question why ? Kant reduced philosophy to the three questions : what can I know , what I can hope for, and that is man . At the same time he believed that the first two questions can be reduced to the last one about the man. Phil\ Fel – oversensuality in Ingush. So Phi, v, so phi e, so phi d, so phy b – four phrases, which means what am i? So phi ya… (Venav)? – what to acquire i came (Venav). Phil so phi v al san? in the state of oversensuality (Phil), that I am like a tsar or a will. Phil so phi v al san – “what am I, like the heavens or the consciousness in a state of oversensuality. Phil so phi d dini san? what am i as the world or the feeling of life in the form of oversensuality. Phil so phi b malkh san? “what am I like the sun or emotions in a form of oversensuality. The Greeks gave their own explanation of the term “philosophy”,  raising a history to Pythagoras, who, allegedly,has offered modestly to call themselves not the sages, but the lovers of wisdom (Philo – love, Sophy – wisdom), and their classes – the love of wisdom. As far as we know, this combination can not be made from the Greek language. Phila is love or a lover? Sophy is wisdom, or sagasity? How this whole form arose from the point of view of Greek language grammar? Most likely the Greeks just explained the term in their own way, the origin of which was lost in the mist of the past, and having jumped over all the wise men, they had to rise to the Pythagoras. The personal So(I) in the state of oversensuality has no nature of the tsar nor of the will, heaven nor of consciousness of the world or taste of life, sun, or emotions. There is “I” without an underlined, highlighted “me” from universal. There I look like the spark in the bosom of  “I” fire ” and “We” sparks. Philosophy began as an echo of metasophy.

METASOPHY AND THEORIES OF SCIENCES                                                                 ECONOMY The term “boakham” meant agriculture, and the economy as a subsistence. Az boakh Bo – I make a subsistence. So boakh Bo – Me makes a subsistence. So Malkh b – I am the sun. The economy like the subsistence of sun, is in the relationship between “I spirit” and “I soul”. Same thing regarding the economy of logos, heaven and world. Four phrases – voakh vo, yoakh yo, doakh do, boaakh bo – designate economies of four types of existence, as a subsistence system.  Suns and worlds do not live by themselves, but in the relationship of spirit and soul. These phrases indicate the subsistence of body, psyche, and social organization. In fact, there are three economies: a) the economy of bio – organization, in which the predominant initiative comes from flocking, b) economy of psycho – organization, in which the predominant initiative comes from predation, and b) the economy of social organization, in which the predominant initiative comes from nobility. The concept of economy as agriculture and science about this agriculture, meets only a third our system – the economy of social organization. This is just a sketch of how a new economic theory can be developed based on metasophy. And metasophy could not only be able to cover all known subject areas, but also could help to remove new sciences from the mind, to broaden and deepen existing ones. The potency of the mind hid a lot of new sciences, but for their actualization or awakening it needs to have a new philosophical science like metasophy. But the most important thing is the unifying force of metasophy, and of all subject areas and all ancient civilizations and teachings of the world. They are- beads-shapes, the Ingush metasophy is – thread-contents. That’s why the ancient history of the world belonged also(even to say mostly ?!)to Ingush or Vainakh race. History is not simply as a past existence that belongs to all things and beings, but history, as acts of will and mind and influences through them on the course of civilization. So why the future could not belong to the Ingush metasophy, once it has already come from the eternity past?


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Valentina  Bondarenko (Chandira)

Koktebel – Saint Petersburg – Moscow


(Department of Transpersonal Psychology and Pedagogics, International University of Fundamental Studies – IUFS)


Maximilian  Voloshin (1877—1932) is famous as a poet, artist, critic, fine art expert and a traveler  – he distinguished himself in many fields. And in each of them there were possibly more talented, more skillful and more learned people. But for some reasons it was Maximilian Voloshin who became a center attracting plenty of people up to now. Voloshin established in the Crimea, in Koktebel, a mysterious center, which has been attracting the Сream of Russian and European culture for more than 100 years. And not only of culture… Year by year the spiritual aura of that place preserved in his House and the entire Koktebel valley has becoming more discernable.  It means that there was something   in Maximilian Alexandrovich himself that became the center of attraction.

This “something” can be called ”esoterics” in its initial,  true meaning. “Eso” means inner, secret, and “terra” means land, territory. So, “esoteric” is inner territory, inner space, which in case with Max Voloshin was huge, utterly cosmic.  Any religion, any faith, any mуstic or occult community has its external (exoteric) manifestation, some visible form, something available for  those from the outside. Such forms are characterized by terminology, rituals, and practices, which are conditioned by the epoch, language, culture, founder’s or leader’s personality, etc. But what is hidden under this cover, what constitutes its inner, secret (esoteric) content is usually inaccessible for strangers. This is a territory, which can be accessed only after passing certain inner growth and development stages.  And while we see the externals with our eyes, and hear them with our ears, the internals can be only experienced and felt.

One can come in touch with another one only having the respective inner experience. We often don’t and cannot know what tools were used by a person in his inner workshop. But basing on the results of his life we can assume that such tools did exist and were used. An intense spiritual search results in a particular spiritual practice. And this can’t but impacts the entire life of the person, leaving invisible, but clear imprint. This imprint can manifest gradually, like an image on developing paper, making the contours of such a life more clear for the mankind.

Max Voloshin is one of such figures, the power and importance of which are growing with time. He lived as a true esoteric, investigating and extending his inner space and his inner territory. It is his inner light that has been lighting and consecrating his Koktebel house – the Poet’s house – for more than 100 years.

Let’s consider his manifestation as an esoteric.

At the non-verbal level it was manifested through his painting. He worked a lot as a painter, but hardly ever painted from nature. Many times, after walking around the Koktebel valley, Karadag and the adjacent mountains, he was back home and worked in his famous Workshop built as an adjacent accommodation in 1913.

He brought the images and colors of the outside world to himself, his inner world, where he filled them with light, sensations, vision, and understanding of the inner space, and then reproduced the landscapes, he had seen with his another,  stranger’s sight,  in his water-colour paintings. And he painted what originated from that inner Cosmos, the images of another, ethereal reality. His water-color paintings are actually panoramas of the Earth, imparted to the people from the Subtle World, to the insiders with subtle reality vision.

At the verbal level it is his poems. If you read them carefully, you will see that absolutely everything is described as reflection of the Subtle Reality. He developed the etiological layer manifested through the inner world of the insider. His view of History is the view of a giant living and creating in another time scale, in another space inaccessible for common people. He sees the whole, knowing and understanding the particulars of Earth and Man creation at the same time. Almost mathematical precision, some distance and algidity of perception with inmost involvement in the conscious co-creation – this is the way Max expresses himself in poetry. This is the way the sum of things can be seen, on the one hand, by a man, with a deep esoteric vision and knowledge, and on the other hand, by a truly educated man, having absorbed all the preceding culture and memory of the mankind. His poems are full of the hum of creation, overlapped, like tuning-fork sounds, by the sound of cosmic spheres, and only then visible poems images expressed by the words can be perceived.

His water-color paintings accompanied by the lines of his poems are a unique way to show the integrity and indivisibility of the processes taking place in the Subtle Spaces.

At the physical level he created the space of his House, having built it like a projection of his soul, and letting in this space those who obtained subtle nourishment for creation there. As a host he was unbelievably generous, often giving to this guests time and strength he needed himself. Max designed, built and maintained his house on his own, like a host. This house was both his cross, and his gift to the human. The inner space of the house is much bigger than its visible part that is evident from the following lines: “Here at night historians, poets, and theologists are talking to me…” It’s not poetical fancies, but esoteric’s reality, the way Voloshin expressed himself not only in poetry and art, but in life.

At the social level he entered into such relations with people, in which man is more important than ideology. For Max all people are brothers, the sons of the single Mother Earth and the single Creator. With each moment of his being he showed the unity, the relations among   human beings like those among the cells of the entire body of the mankind. That is why he managed to get on well with different people, to find a way out in most complicated social and political situations. In his famous poem “Poet’s House” he wrote: “I’ve done all I could not to let my brothers kill each other”. He shouldered the heavy burden of a peacemaker at the time when Europe first, and then Russia split in implacable enemy camps. He realized the unity where others saw only fight and split. He was one of the few who understood that this was the way of shaping a new world.

The figure of Voloshin as esoteric acquires a larger scale as the human is starting mastering and realizing the ideas evident for Max    even at that time. That is why the Poet’s House, Koktebel, and the entire space created by Voloshin and preserved by the House become the Mecca not only for the people of culture, science, art, but for esoterics of the entire Earth, which is evidenced by various international conferences and festivals of esoteric schools in Koktebel. This is the place of germination for everything Max planted as the seeds of the future Knowledge, with all this life fused with Koktebel.

And, finally, at the Spirit, the Cosmos level he inset himself to the Koktebel valley, he spread himself to the entire Cimmeria surrounding Koktebel –  the Cimmeria of Voloshin… And he stayed here as the Spirit and the Keeper of the place and the knowledge kept here by the Earth.  His interrelation with the natural spirits, with nature itself, and with the land was such that they listened to him and obeyed him. That is why his house was always protected and saved not only by people, but the invisible keepers, often  in spite of the effort of those trying to  bring both the house and its host to ruin. And that is why Maria Stepanovna Voloshina, the poet’s widow, wrote in her memoirs that she always felt Max’s presence in the situations, which seemed absolutely desperate and hopeless.

With all his life Maximilian Alexandrovich Voloshin expressed himself as a true esoteric, as a man whose inner world, whose inner space was not only as great as the outer world, but much bigger. And this inner world is the origin of the outer one, which is so clearly seen from his poem “Apprentice”:


«Когда же ты поймешь,

Что ты не сын Земле,

Но путник во Вселенной,

Что солнца и созвездья возникали,

И гибли внутри тебя,

Что всюду – и в тварях, и в вещах –


Томится Божественное Слово,

Их к бытию призвавшее,

Что ты освободитель божественных имен,

Пришедший изназвать всех духов, узников, увязших в веществе,


Когда поймешь ты, что человек рожден,

Чтоб выплавить из мира

Необходимости и Разума

Вселенную Свободы и Любви –

Тогда лишь ты станешь Мастером»

“When will you realize

That you aren’t son of Earth,

But wanderer in the Universe,

That sons and constellations were born,

And died inside you,

That in everything – in living creatures and in things –

The Word of God exists,

Which has exhorted them to be,

That you are a liberator of superhuman names,

The one who came to name the spirits, prisoners and those who are bogged down in thingism,

When you understand that a Man is born


To make out of the world

Of Need and Mind

The Universe of Liberty and Love –

Indeed, you’ll be a Master then”


Entering the inner reality via spiritual practices, esoterics actually find themselves in the united inner territory where any terminological disputes and disagreements make no sense. Everyone who gets to this space feels as if he is a small part of the great Whole, and feels the interrelation of everything. Only having the experience of living in this inner world, invisible for common people, a person becomes a real esoteric. And then all his outer life becomes the reflection of this true reality of the Subtle World. The figures of true esoteric often laughed at and unvalued during their lives gradually grow and become clearer for the future generations.

Maximilian Alexandrovich Voloshin certainly pertains to one of the highest peaks of human spirit, the scale of which is becoming apparent only now, in the begging of the ХХI century. We are just starting to use the energy of the new Epoch, the coming of which was prepared by the entire life of the great  prophet and visionist Max Voloshin. His house, which has survived all troubled years of the ХХ century, for more than a century lives as a pearl of the Koktebel valley. The House has preserved the sacrament, and the mystery M.A. Voloshin created and maintained with all his life. And as a sign of recognition of his mission, Max’s profile on the steepy slope of Karadag facing the sea is clearly seen from the window of his workshop.




  1. N.Starikov, D.Belyaev, Russia. Crimea. History. Peter Press LLC, Saint Petersburg, 2014, 252 p.
  2. Maximilian Voloshin. Koktebel Coast
  3. Evgeny Zharkov. The Country of Koktebel. The Foci of Culture. Mid- XIX – Mid- XX Century.- Kiev: Bolero,2008. – 608 p.
  4. I.Levichev, А.Timirgazin. Koktebel. The Old Crimea. The Second Birth of the Poet’s House. Simferopol. Russkaya Kniga, Sonat, 2012. 192 p.
  5. М.S.Voloshina. About Max, About Koktebel, and About Myself”. Memoirs. V.P. Kupchenko. Koktebel Publishers, Feodosiya -Moscow, 2003
  6. I.V.Kuris. Thoughts of Esoterics as Conventional Knowledge in Bioenergoplastika (Yoga Dance), the Experience of Comprehension. М.Veligor Publishers, 5–23 p.


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Delivered by Marie Rose Abousefian Ph.D. in Geneva at the 7th Scientific World Congress, ‘’Ararat’’ International Academy of Sciences in UN, 5 September, 2016

Today, at a time of rampant upheaval and increased globalization, entire nations are being forcibly displaced, resulting in monumental demographic shifts; masses of people are being uprooted from their homelands and dispersed across the world. The natural course of people’s history is being disrupted and they’re being threatened with the eventual loss of their language and their old national traditions. It has become imperative to probe the issue of national belonging, without which it would be impossible for the nations of the world to promote peace.
Currently an alarming number of nations are being stripped of their human and territorial rights. Wars that strictly serve the interests of the world’s great powers are directly responsible for this mass displacement, which is a key factor in the destruction of nationhood.
The West is redrawing the globe’s political map, for its own interests. They are using economic might to justify their ongoing bid for globalization, promoting their own values and culture to the detriment of marginalized peoples. Ethnicities and ancient indigenous cultures are being trivialized and in many instances replaced by Westernized versions of themselves, creating cultural disruptions and double standards among “host” societies.
History provides ample evidence that ethnicity, which reflects local roots and origins across thousands of years of cultural development, is not easily given to suppression or adulteration. For centuries, indigenous peoples have remained self-sufficient in terms of national and cultural values with distinct identities.
Westernization underestimates these values
and imposes new ones. It promotes its own values, marketing them under the heading of modernization.
As political scientist Samuel P. Huntington describes, ‘’ The Western virus, once it is lodged in another society, is difficult to expunge. The virus persists but is not fatal; the patient survives but is never whole’’. ‘’Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order’’. New York: Touchstone,1996, 82, 83)
Westernization is not necessarily synonymous with modernization. Modernization is a natural process which nations undergo in an instinctive effort to evolve with the times and refresh their traditions, thereby renewing and enriching their national identities.
It is worth noting that as recently as a few decades ago; the West scorned the national identities of China, India, Persia, and other nations, considering them exotic at best, even though their respective identities are the culmination of histories and civilizations that go back thousands of years.
Interestingly, in our information age, when human con

sciousness continues to expand influenced by breakneck
technological innovation. Daily life is conditioned by the degree of connectedness with cyberspace. Individual consumers are able to link with each other across the globe, seeking to reconnect with their own cultural roots. It would seem that the reverse would occur: globalization — of which the Internet is a glaring function — would take the individual away from his or her origins and culture, and transform him or her into a non-culture-specific citizen of the world.

Then what is it that draws the individual to the national identity?

What are the fundamental attributes of the formation of national identity?

Why is national identity important?

These questions are as old as civilization itself, and much of philosophical inquiry. For instance, the Greek philosophers, among them Plato and Protagoras, saw national identity as a human sense of belonging, process of thinking, the values of moral behavior. All these are embedded in national identity.
The paper that I present today is an analysis of the evolution of Armenian identity, particularly in the past 100 years. That evolution is conditioned by a number of key characteristics, as follows:

1. Geopolitics, which includes internal and external politics.
2. Education; language, culture and historical awareness.
3. The individual’s quest for national identity.
4. Memory of instinct.
5. Individual, familial and collective memory.

1.The first and main characteristic, Geopolitics.

The fundamental factor in the development of national identity; the loci, nature, environment, a nation’s specific relationship with their land, its distinct history of evolution, economy and the political context in which a nation is shaped. It is through these elements that a nation sustains its existence, constructs its history, and enriches it.
Armenians even have an epos dedicated to the role of one’s homeland in forging of national identity. It is the legend of ‘’Hayk and Bel’’, where Hayk defeats Bel in a one-on-one battle as he stands firmly on his Armenian land.
It is due to geographical uniqueness that every nation has its own mindset, traditions, culture, and history, and even physical features, by which nations are distinguished from each other.
A nation’s geographical setting is constant flux. Over the course of centuries, it can undergo significant changes, brought on by natural processes as well as external political and military factors. Clearly, such changes affect the psychology, mindset, and way of life, and culture of the people living in a given territory. In other words, geographic evolution has a direct bearing on the evolution of national identity.
As one of the oldest people in the world, Armenians have more experience than most, influenced by several geographical and external political changes. For millennia, they have lived in Armenia Major (Mets Hayk) and Armenia Minor (Pokr Hayk). Later, after the fall of their last Armenian kingdom of Cilicia, Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottomans. Armenia was divided into Eastern and Western segments. Due to different political and cultural influences, these two segments have developed independently of one another with different destinies.
Western Armenia (which is under Turkish occupation ) was much larger than its eastern counterpart, encompassing a richly variegated topography that included numerous bodies of water, towering mountain ranges, and grasslands. This natural variegation has lent the Western Armenian a much “softer” and more colorful national character, as is typical of peoples living in ecologically diverse environments. Therefore the language, culture, history, and traditions of the Armenians who have lived in the seven provinces of Western Armenia, as well as Cilicia, are different than those of Eastern Armenia.
By contrast, the high altitudes and significantly mountainous terrain of Eastern Armenia have lent its inhabitants a “rougher” national character, amply reflected in their culture and traditions.
For five centuries under Ottoman rule, with their increasing oppression Western Armenians became docile, complacent imperial subjects. In 1915 with the Armenian Genocide, Western Armenians lost their homeland, millions of their people massacred and all their cultural, historical monuments and institutions destroyed and remnants of genocide were spread all over the world.
Eastern Armenians after 70 years of under Soviet regime fought and established their independence and even freed part of their ancient homeland, Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) from Azerbaijan’s occupation.
To illustrate the importance of land in peoples’ lives and their unconditional bond with their land, their soil, let me cite a simple example.
In 2005—90 years after the Armenian Genocide—Diana Margossian was about to take a journey to Western Armenia (now under Turkish occupation). She asked 94 years old Mariam, a Genocide orphan, if she wished for something from her old country. Mariam asked only for some soil from her native village, so that she would be buried with it when she died. As requested, she brought the soil. Mariam opened the package and said, ‘’You brought the smell of my village to me’’. (http://www.mediamax.am/en/news/society/1835/#sthash.vHX5eSSI.dpuf)
Such an example might seem simplistic yet, its underscore the fundamental role of a locus—a homeland in the forging of national identity.
The formation of national identity requires much more than a geographic locus. It involves a long and difficult process of developing language, culture and national history. This takes us to the

2. The 2nd characteristic: Education.

If one’s parents were Armenian, French or Chinese, it does not necessarily mean that he/she is going to feel Armenian, French or Chinese automatically. There are other important factors. One of them is the language, which apart from being a subconscious aspect of identity, is a fundamental tool for a nation’s longevity, the development of a distinct culture and history created with that language, and also, for their further development.
Today, due to political, economic, and cultural pressures, generations of Armenians and other ethnic groups as well, are growing up outside their homelands without speaking their mother tongues, therefore engendering a new cultural type in the context of national identity. The absence of language from the national-identity equation will certainly signal a paradigm shift. But its particulars are as yet unclear, since this is a relatively new phenomenon.
The key is education; the high degree of knowledge, a desire to preserve one’s own heritage and history. Without knowing your own nations real history, one can’t contribute anything to that history. But knowing your nation’s history is not enough. You have to become a part of that history and not let outsiders to rewrite your nation’s history.
In the past 20 years we are witnessing how Turkish intellectuals, barely a dozen of them—out of population of 70 million, have been trying to correct their fake history which, as Turkish scholar Dr. A. Zorlu-Durukan states in her ‘’Ideological Pillars’’, that ‘’the Turkish first president Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, in 1930 established a team of scholars to rewrite Turkish history not as it was, but as it should have been’’. (Zorlu-Durukhan, ‘’Ideological Pillars’’ 90-95)
Turkey has used this fake history to invent a civilized national identity, branding it as a Western secular state. But as Samuel P. Huntington writes, ‘’Turkey is a torn country due to the ambiguity of its identity. Political leaders can make history, but they cannot escape history. They produce torn countries; they infect their country with a cultural schizophrenia which becomes its continuing and defining characteristic’’. (Samuel P. Huntington ‘’Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order’’. New York: Touchstone, 1996, 74,78)
According to Plato, it is the duty of government to shape its citizens moral character, which is the axis of national identity.

3. The 3th characteristic is the individual quest for national identity.

In the Armenian people’s cases, it is the re-emergence of national identity among second and third generations Armenians, who were forcibly Islamized during the Genocide and still live in Turkey. This national reawakening is taking place a full century after the Genocide and in a country which still oppresses and flagrantly discriminates against its Armenian citizens, even categorizing them in a derogatory manner. They call them ‘’remnants of the sword’’, ‘’kelech arteghe’’ in Turkish. (R. Bedrosian, ‘’Armenian Mirror-Spectator’’, May 11, 2015)
This last term begs the question: if the Armenians are referred by the Turks as ‘’remnants of the sword’’, then isn’t it logical to deduce that the Turkish population is perfectly aware of its genocidal past, its real history?
Although the number of Islamized Armenians is not exact, it has been estimated at more than 2 million. What interests us more, however is the fact itself.
Despite the tide of Turkish resentment and hostility a significant segment of Turkey’s Islamized Armenians continued to preserve their dialects, dances and songs, their traditions, culture, in short, their national identity, making certain not to be assimilated by Turks or Kurds. Even some of them have been living with hyphenated names, consisting of Arabic, Kurdish or Turkish name and plus an Armenian one, such as Muhammad-Garo, Ahmed- Saro, and so on. Although they live as Kurds or Arabs, they feel Armenian, decorating their homes with Armenian symbols, giving their children Armenian names, marrying among themselves and yearning to return to their Armenian roots. (Kevork Apelian, Yeghernen Brkvats Arabatsats u Krtatsats Hayeru Serundneru Surio mech – Arabized and Kurdified Genocide Survivors in Syria. Horizon: 2016, p. 32).
There is a vast body of documentation about Armenians in Turkey who throughout their lives, fearing persecution, have concealed their ethnicity even from their children, yet confessed in their deathbeds, wishing that their children learn about their roots and return to them.
One of them was famous human rights activist, lawyer and writer Fethiye Cetin’s grandmother. Fethiye Cetin published a book about her Armenian past entitled ‘’My Grandmother: A Memoir’’, where she describes her grandmothers’ sufferings about hiding her Armenian identity. Another journalist, Basyurt Erhan. in Dec.26, 2005, also announced ‘’My Grandmother is Armenian’’. (Anneannem bir Ermeni ‘ ymish) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidden_Armenians
A question arises again-why would people who kept quiet for 70 years or longer about their real roots, wish to reaffirm their national identity at the end of their lives? The answer is simple. They want to be recognized by their own national identity.

4.The 4th characteristic is memory of instinct, an unexplainable, which exists in the ‘’inner’’ us and guides us during our lives.

One vivid indication of this is the case of Armenian orphans ‘’Turkified’’ during the Genocide, and who refused to accept another identity, at the cost of their lives.
As far as forced cultural assimilation is concerned, children everywhere are always easy targets, given the fact that their national consciousness is in an embryonic state. This is why the Ottoman genocidists implemented a program dubbed, (devshirme, in Turkish) through which orphaned Armenian children whose parents were either massacred or perished during the forced death marches, were collected and subsequently Islamized.
On September 22, 1915, the Turkish authorities placed 1,426 Armenian orphans in Muslim orphanages. The boys were at once circumcised, and all the children were given Muslim names.
When observers from the League of Nations visited these orphanages, they found long lists of Armenian orphans who had been given Muslim names. Children with names such as Hagop and Vahan were renamed Hasan, Mahmud, Yusuf, and so on. The Western observers discovered that Islamization was in fact a matter of official policy, evidenced by an order issued Interior Minister Talaat Pasha on August 30, 1915, in which it was clearly stated that the ethnic identity of Armenian orphans should be wiped out by turning them into Turks.(www.ARMENOIDTEAM.COM)
As significantly, considerable segments of the day’s Turkish and Kurdish populations actively participated in the Islamization of Armenian orphans, by abducting or simply taking possession of them, renaming them, raising them as Turks or Kurds, and using them as slaves. The sexual exploitation of these defenseless children by their “adoptive parents” was likewise rampant.
Today many Turks and Kurds claim that their ancestors saved Armenians during the Genocide. In most cases, however, the reality was totally different, as documented in the memoirs and testimonies of Genocide survivors, and even in Turkish literature.
One of the most notorious Turkification orphanages was located in Antoura, a small town in Lebanon, which was under Ottoman occupation at the time. The building still stands, now housing the French Lazarist College.
The Orphanage was under the commander of Jemal Pasha, one of the architects of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. There were 1,200 orphans, 200 of them were Kurds and Turks, and the rest 1, 000 were Armenian children ages 3-14.
As author and journalist Robert Fisk writes in ‘’The Independent’’, ‘’Turkey’s first feminist, Halide Edip Adivar, helped to run this orphanage of terror in which Armenian children were systematically deprived of their Armenian identity and given new Turkish names, forced to become Muslims, and beaten savagely if they were heard to speak Armenian’’.
(Robert Fisk, ‘’Living Proof of the Armenian Genocide’’. The Independent, March 8, 2010)
Karnig Panian was one of those children who were taken to the Antoura orphanage when he was five years old. He was given a new name, Mahmud, and was listed as “Orphan #551.” Following the end of the First World War, the Turks left the orphanage and the Armenian Relief Society took over.
Panian left the orphanage, and later wrote a memoir titled ‘’Goodbye, Antoura’’. He wrote in detail about the horrific conditions where a new identity was forced on the Armenian orphans. He wrote: ‘’Every evening, before sunset, we gathered in the courtyard to salute the Turkish flag and call out at the top of our lungs ‘’long live Jemal Pasha’’. After flag ceremony follows corporal punishment. Children ages 3 to 10 were called up and repeatedly strike with an iron rod on their soles, until they lost consciousness. No matter how harshly they were punished, some of them couldn’t walk weeks, the orphans continued secretly to whisper Armenian words, call each other by their real names, utter their parents’ names’’. (Karnig Panian, ‘’Goodbye, Antoura: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide’’. Stanford University Press, 2015,p 92-93)
Another example; In the 1920s, some 300 Armenian Genocide orphans were sheltered and educated at Cedarville Farm, near Georgetown, Ontario, Canada. Spearheaded by the Armenian Relief Association of Canada and supported by the Canadian government, the orphan-care program, known as “Canada’s Noble Experiment,” was the country’s first humanitarian act on an international scale. Under that program, Armenian orphans were housed and educated at the farm for a period of five years. At some point, the Armenian Relief Association decided to change the orphans’ names to English ones, in gratitude for their Canadian sponsors. But when the orphans were presented a list of names such as Newman, Oliver, William, etc., and asked to pick their new names from that list, orphans were outraged and refused to accept. www.heritagetrust.on.ca/corporatesite/media/oht/…/armenian-boys-farm-home-eng.pd).
The orphans’ Armenian names were the only pieces of identity they had. Their names were their only link with what they had lost: their parents, their homes.
Let me emphasize that these orphans were children, with no awareness of a national identity. Yet they had a subconscious link with their past. That link is the memory of the instinct, which can be even more powerful than actual memories.

5. The 5th characteristic is Individual, familial and collective memory.

For Armenians, like for all other peoples of the Caucasus and the Middle East, family ties are at the heart of their lives. It is also the strongest and most important components of their national life. In Armenian families each member has an obligation for the welfare of her/his family.
With the Genocide, the Turks attempted to destroy Armenian familial bonds by destroying families themselves. This made it easy to expropriate the properties and possessions of the Armenian population. By killing entire families the Turks were convinced that they were preventing any future possibility of Armenian demands for justice and the return of properties. But the Turks had not taken into account that Armenian’s familial bond is the bond are the type of memory that’s immune to re-engineering.
Consider the case of acclaimed Armenian-American author Levon Zaven Surmelian, who was five years old at the time of the Genocide. He was orphaned and Turkified. His name was changed first to Jemal, then to Yanko. Following a long odyssey of hellish proportions, he at last was able to come to America. In his book, titled ‘’I Ask You, Ladies and Gentlemen’’, Surmelian describes the profound longing he felt all his life for the family he lost, his parents, his mother in particular, and his ancestral home.
The very same longing is a core theme in the work of another Armenian literary great, Vazgen Shushanian. After escaping from a death march bound for Der Zor, Shushanian, who was 12 years old at the time, lived through the Golgotha of orphanhood and subsequently extreme hardship before he could move to Paris. He spent his entire life with the memories of the loss of his parents and sister, his home, and his years as an orphan. Shushanian chronicled these memories in his novel Yerkir Hishatakats (Country of Memories).
In the words of author Shavarsh Nartuni,
“Hunger and the terror of the Turk could not break me as much as my longing for home.”
Another writer, Mushegh Ishkhan (Jenderejian), recounts similar feelings about his family, home, and birthplace in his book Mnas Barov, Mankutyun (Goodbye, Childhood).
At the time of the Genocide, these authors were teenagers — not mature, developed individuals — who had not had enough time to fully get to know their parents, environment, and community. Yet rooted in them was a powerful gene of familial memory which helped preserve their sense of national identity, the influence of which they have recounted in their literary works.
Genocide is not only the physical annihilation of a people, but the loss of peoples’ collective memory. It is not only killing of a people, but also demolishing nations’ historical monuments, or converting their cultural and religious institutions developed over centuries and contains a nation’s collective memories. The Ottoman genocidists achieved both. They uprooted Armenian populace from its ancestral lands and destroyed or converted all their cultural and religious institutions which preserved the nation’s millennia old written heritage and cultural monuments.
Today the same methods are still being used to deracinate people in many parts of the world such as Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Rwanda, and so on. With the loss of lands, cultural institutions, and language, there will be little left to nurture.
A given nation will easily assimilate into other peoples and eventually will lose its national identity.
No matter how enigmatic the rebirth of the Armenian people may seem, it is thanks to the existence of Eastern Armenia, the nation’s ancient land, which kept people’s collective memory alive.
It’s hard to imagine any other nation that, immediately after experiencing the immeasurable catastrophe of being uprooted from its soil and being stripped of its millennia-old heritage — its language, culture, traditions, customs, and history — would be able to re-establish its national character and preserve it, despite living in foreign lands and dealing with foreign values.
That collective memory helped Armenians within the past 101 years to preserve the details of the genocide committed against their people, and all that was taken away from them between 1915-1923. Thanks to that collective memory the Armenian nation got back on its feet.
A long string of calamities — beginning with the Genocide and followed by the loss of the First Armenian Republic, Bolshevism, and 70 years of Soviet tyranny, including Stalin’s reign of terror — gradually changed the character of Armenian national identity. As a whole, the Armenian people became dependent on the charity of foreign countries. It became gullible, docile, and complacent, without a distinct political direction or mandate.
In every country of the newly emerging diaspora, Armenians were directly or indirectly compelled to forget their past and immerse themselves in the present and future of their host society. In Europe and America, Armenians were once so scorned and harassed that many of them changed their names. Thus, for instance, Dikran Kuyumjian became Michael Arlen, Karnig Zouloumian became Carzou, and Vosdanig Adoian became Arshile Gorky. Many even felt embarrassed to reveal their ethnicity and stopped speaking Armenian — a fact which added a new term to our lexicon of national identity: otaralezu hay, or foreign-speaking Armenian.
Irrespective of the extent and diversity of the influences which our adopted diaspora countries may exert on our cultural and intellectual lives, our collective memory impels us to maintain our national identity. One evidence of this lies in the distinctly Armenian oeuvres of outstanding diaspora musicians, painters, authors, and other artists — such as Alan Hovhaness, millennia old written heritage and cultural monuments.
Today the same methods are still being used to deracinate people in many parts of the world such as Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Rwanda, and so on. With the loss of lands, cultural institutions, and language, there will be little left to nurture.
A given nation will easily assimilate into other peoples and eventually will lose its national identity.
No matter how enigmatic the rebirth of the Armenian people may seem, it is thanks to the existence of Eastern Armenia, the nation’s ancient land, which kept people’s collective memory alive.
It’s hard to imagine any other nation that, immediately after experiencing the immeasurable catastrophe of being uprooted from its soil and being stripped of its millennia-old heritage — its language, culture, traditions, customs, and history — would be able to re-establish its national character and preserve it, despite living in foreign lands and dealing with foreign values.
That collective memory helped Armenians within the past 101 years to preserve the details of the genocide committed against their people, and all that was taken away from them between 1915-1923. Thanks to that collective memory the Armenian nation got back on its feet.
A long string of calamities — beginning with the Genocide and followed by the loss of the First Armenian Republic, Bolshevism, and 70 years of Soviet tyranny, including Stalin’s reign of terror — gradually changed the character of Armenian national identity. As a whole, the Armenian people became dependent on the charity of foreign countries. It became gullible, docile, and complacent, without a distinct political direction or mandate.
In every country of the newly emerging diaspora, Armenians were directly or indirectly compelled to forget their past and immerse themselves in the present and future of their host society. In Europe and America, Armenians were once so scorned and harassed that many of them changed their names. Thus, for instance, Dikran Kuyumjian became Michael Arlen, Karnig Zouloumian became Carzou, and Vosdanig Adoian became Arshile Gorky. Many even felt embarrassed to reveal their ethnicity and stopped speaking Armenian — a fact which added a new term to our lexicon of national identity: otaralezu hay, or foreign-speaking Armenian.
Irrespective of the extent and diversity of the influences which our adopted diaspora countries may exert on our cultural and intellectual lives, our collective memory impels us to maintain our national identity. One evidence of this lies in the distinctly Armenian oeuvres of outstanding diaspora musicians, painters, authors, and other artists — such as Alan Hovhaness, Arshile Gorky, Carzou, Michael Arlen, William Saroyan, and Charles Aznavour — who have maintained their national identity despite living in foreign countries.
Another factor that has played a vital role in the collective memory of the Armenian people is its internal cultural diversity: for millennia, the Armenian nation has functioned as a vast tapestry of dialects, customs, and traditions which, despite subtle differences from one locale to the next, have formed a clearly identifiable civilizational whole. Thus the Armenians who trace their origins to Cilicia, Yerznka, Van, Sassoon, and hundreds of other historic Armenian locales share an overarching Armenianness, despite their unique customs, traditions, and dialects. Even today, the Armenian language is comprised of two major dialects, Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian; but, quite remarkably, all speakers of the language maintain the very same national identity.
Yet it must be stressed that the repository of collective memory cannot last long in the absence of the land that nurtures it, and if the Armenian language and the culture that springs from it were to be allowed to decline. In other words, that repository must continually be refreshed, and developed day after day, for the benefit of future generations.
In terms of contemporary conceptions of the Armenian people, perhaps the most unacceptable reality is that the world recognizes the Armenians strictly as the first Christian nation. That is to say, Armenians national identity is presented and viewed only within the context of Christianity, whereas other Christian nations — such as France, Italy, Greece, and Spain — are recognized by their national, not religious, identity. Similarly, Muslim peoples including Iran and those of many Arab and African countries are recognized mainly by their cultural identities, and not necessarily their religion.
Religion would have us believe that all peoples are the children of God, with no cultural distinction. Yet the indisputable fact is that national identity does exist and is a fundamental aspect of every nation. Therefore national identity is a concept above and beyond religion.
The development of national identity is the result of an incomparably longer process, carried out through the unified efforts of a people, rather than a consequence of the influence exerted by a particular religious institution or cultural or political organization. Millennium before Christianity, there was a distinct Armenian civilization, with its own belief system. No matter how extensively Christianity has destroyed the legacy of that ancient civilization, its culture and traditions have survived and been transmitted through our genes, and our collective memory has preserved core aspects of it, through which our national history and identity were shaped.
Today a new, non-Christian, religious tide is entering Armenian national identity. There is a return to our deep cultural roots through those who profess an alternate faith, further pointing to the fact that religion cannot have a defining role in national identity.
National Identity is not a commodity for serving the interests of great powers. It is the result of centuries of work, and I believe every conference such as the one we’re having today has a duty to raise awareness of the crucial importance of respecting and helping preserve the national identity of every single nation. Only by peace will the world civilization be preserved and only by preserving national identity will world be at peace.


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V. G. Bondarenko (Chandira)
Grand Doctor of Philosophy,
IUFS Professor,

Trahkternberg G. , professor, Grand PhD

Metahistory as part of a scientific paradigm of the New Age

Global challenges encountered by the humanity in the beginning of the third millennium, require a revision of prevailing in the recent past, but clearly outdated views on the causes and driving forces of human history. In response to these challenges is born a new scientific paradigm, new approaches and new directions are created in science, for example, transpersonal psychology . One of these new directions is metahistory.
Metahistory is the doctrine of the course and meaning of the historical process , its driving forces and future outcomes and represents «…the principle of understanding of the things and phenomena in their historical development in organic connection with the conditions by which they are generated.. Metahistory suggests an approach to the research, when we take into account not only the visible prerequisites for the circumstances , but also their esoteric underlying reason».( http://www.waylove.ru/a3933). The term introduced by analogy with the word ‘metaphysics’ (from the Greek meta – outside , afterwards) . Metaphysics is a philosophical doctrine of the super-sensible , ie, inaccessible to the physical experienc , the principles of life.
The scientific paradigm – (from Greek  παράδειγμα, «example, model») is a set of fundamental scientific facilities , representations and terms that are accepted and shared by the scientific community and uniting the majority of its members. (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/). According to the American historian and philosopher Kuhn (1922 – 1996) , the development of science is an abrupt revolutionary process , the essence of which is also reflected in a paradigm shift (see “ Structure of Scientific Revolutions “ in 1962 .).
Change of scientific concepts is one of the most pressing issues of modern science , and the change the whole paradigm of development is an urgent need not only to the scientific community of a country , but also to humanity as a whole . The history of mankind – is the story of a regular paradigm shift.
In the twentieth century the paradigm of human development was viewed from the perspective of the concepts of the omnipotence of science, technological progress, exclusiveness and superiority of force. The aim of the development was declared as the satisfaction of the ever-increasing human needs. Modern science caused the scientific and technological revolution and became in the XIX-XX centuries a productive force that started an analytic dismembering of a coherent picture of the world. This carries the risk of distorting the real picture of the world, departing from the view of nature as a whole, since in a separate study, the fragment is not fully taken into account with its relationship with the environment.
In the XXI century humanity has entered the global crisis throughout the planetary system. This systemic crisis affects all aspects of human activity and all countries . In the past, a way out of these crises was in finding a new understanding of the world order , in the formation of a new scientific paradigm on tha basis of which we could create new technologies and new social relations that enable humanity not only to overcome the crisis , but also to rise to a new stage of evolutionary development .
The new scientific paradigm of the twenty-first century based on the idea of synthesis, on the idea of a transition from duality to unity , when the principle of “ either – or “ is replaced by the principle of “ both – and” , allowing to solve , seemingly irreconcilable contradictions . This paradigm shift concerns all aspects of the life of humanity on the planet Earth. This transition to a new paradigm will allow the consciousness free itself from the shackles of good lessons errors , see the World for what it Really is, and realize the unity of the World .
At present, science has faced a number of challenges, that it can not explore and explain on the basis of the currently existing scientific paradigms.. The most advanced representatives of the academic community are beginning to understand the need to combine the methods of academic knowledge (science experiment, observation) with the possibilities of non-scientific methods of research. Non-scientific knowledge is a kind of scientific activity, during which the researchers uses not only methods and means permitted by the current at the moment the scientific paradigm, but also its prohibited features to obtain new information. http://evolution21.ru/scientific_paradigm. Non-scientific knowledge tends to explore the world in all accessible to the humanity ways.
Today, the scientific picture of the world is changing rapidly. Interdisciplinary synthesis of sciences achieves the greatest efficacy in studies. The integration of different approaches and methods in research work extends the possibility of obtaining new knowledge. Throughout the world, a greater interest(including scientific interrest) is shown to the universal knowledge of the Science of the Ageless Wisdom, transmitted to mankind by the great minds for thousands of years of history. This knowledge forms the basis of all true religions, philosophies and ethics.
The change of the scientific paradigm that is happening now is due to the change of cosmic eras, during which happen the stronomical events that trigger dramatic energy and environmental changes on our planet. We live in the the time foretold by great prophets when end the agreed together several cycles of development: universal, galactic, solar, earthly, human. This short period of time, which is currently experiencing our planet is called in the literature the Great Shift and is marked by events of great magnitude and importance.
The basis of the existence of humanity and the universe is the Cosmic law of cyclic manifestation, which is expressed in terms of the occurrence of specific cosmoplanet Ages . The most famous of them is the one influencing people’s consciousness – the Great Cosmic Cycle , or Precession of Axis , that is performed approximately every 26,000 years . Derived from it are 12 recurrent Ages , each lasting a little more than 2000 terrestrial years and accompanied by one of the seven rays ( rays of seven – the seven great cosmic Energy qualities ) . Each ray embodies the idea . Rays form the model or type of the world , which are the planetary forms and thus confer evolutionary processes of internal capacity .
At the present time there is a change of the Piscean age ( 6 th ray ) for the Aquarian Age (7th ray) .
« The influence of the sixth ray served to attract people’s minds to the ideal , for example , sacrifice or service. … The seventh ray will carry out things foreseen and the ideals of the previous cycle of the sixth ray activity. One ray prepares the way to another …» And further «…the whole history is a series of consequences of those impacts that energy or radiation (in other words , the rays ) exerted on the humanity in its diverse stages of evolutionary development. They englobe all the stages of development from primitive humanity to our modern civilization ; everything that occurs is the result of cyclical effects of energy on the environment and the part of it which we call the human kingdom» (А.А.Bayley, 3. 4).
The metaphysical or otherwise transphysical (trans – through, for) structure of our planet was for the first time described by the Russian poet and visionary Daniel Andreev (1906-1959) in the main work of his life – the book “Rose of the World.” Using meta-historical method of understanding and creating metahistorical terminology, which is now being developed by those who continue to study meta-history of our planet, Daniel Andreev described elsemesurable and elsematerial reality that is inextricably linked with the flesh of earth’s history and its meaning. His metahistory is the study of the course and meaning of the historical process, its driving forces and its future results.
The research of metahistorical process is, on the one hand, subjective, as it implies not only the knowledge of the ordinary hisstory, but also the use of transpersonal methods of learning and depends on the qualities of the researcher. On the other hand, the process is objective, as based on the known cosmic laws, cycles and rhythms that do not depend on the subjective interpretations and understandings. These two ways of cognition do not argue, but complement each other, giving a much more complete and accurate picture of the historical process than when using only one of them.
Thus the subject of metahistory combines two ways of acquiring knowledge: the analytical rational (academic scientific methods) and synthetic intuitive (transpersonal techniques), as well as two kinds of knowledge: knowledge of modern academic research and space Knowledge of the Ageless Wisdom. Therefore, metahistory is a part of a new scientific paradigm that allows to include in the scientific sphere the knowledge and techniques that were not yet adopted by a materialist science. As a result, it becomes possible to shift to a more holistic view of the history of our planet and to expand the range of possibilities of its study and reflection.


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Prof. Jayasekara J.S.K., Grand PhD

Then known as Ceylon, lying in the Indian Ocean, separated from the peninsular India by Palk Strait, also known as Granary in the East and Pearl in the Indian Ocean, is none other than my motherland, SRI LANKA.
This island was once under the Portuguese, Dutch and finally, under the British rule, known as the British Crown Colony of Ceylon and gained independence as a result of tremendous struggles, in the year 1948, although it remained under dominion status. Its 1972 constitution proclaimed it as an independent republic and changed the country’s name. Finally, in 1978, a new constitution officially declared the island as the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka has a great pride of having a history dating back over 3000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years. It is blessed with an excellent geographic location with deep harbors and this made her an effectively active hub from the time of the ancient Silk Road through the Second World War. Also, Sri Lanka’s recent history has been marred by a 30 year civil war which decisively ended when the Sri Lankan Military defeated the Liberation of Tamil Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009.
Since then, Politics, media and journalism has always been a subject interacting very often with the people, in both national and international levels, providing information and updates on every era that has been passed by.


Media of Sri Lanka has always been people-friendly, communicating with them effectively and efficiently throughout every incident, trustworthily.
The media in Sri Lanka can be broadly placed into two categories- those which are owned and controlled by the State and those which are privately owned and controlled, and consists of different types of communication media, such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and the websites. State and private media operators provide services in the main languages, Sinhala, Tamil and English.

The state owns the Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. (Lake House) which has the broadest outreach in terms of distribution networks, and which also benefits from extensive State Advertising. Radio and Television were a government monopoly until the mid 1980s. Since then several privately owned television/radio stations have been established. The State continues to control the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (radio), the Sri Lanka Rupawahini Corporation (television) and ITN radio and television network. The transmission capacities of the Private stations are much more limited than that of the State owned radio and television. Thus, State radio and television remain the electronic Medias that reach the largest number of consumers, especially in far-flung areas of the island.

There are several journalists’ organizations that work for the promotion of their profession. Few among them are the Free Media Movement, Working Journalists’ Association and the Photo-Journalists Association, Editors’ Guild of Sri Lanka, and a Foreign Correspondents’ Association. There are number of trade unions of media workers and the Federation of Media Employee Trade Union (FMETU), which unites all of them. The most active organization in Sri Lanka that advocates and lobbies for the freedom of expression and information is The Free Media Movement (FMM), a grouping of independent journalists and the persons working in different fields in the media.


Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered. The term “media bias” implies a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed.


Politics and Journalism has always been a prominent topic when it comes to governing a country and since then, the society has always shown the curious interconnection between them, as there has been a mysterious interconnection between them since a very long time. Many struggled and wished to stay at one end of both ropes, but such attempts seemed futile while some people have crossed the boundary, dangling both paths more than once. So, It is rather obvious that there is a clear firewall between the two professions.

In a nutshell, the nexus between journalism and politics is divergent. Thus, there has been a growing case of symbiotic relationship between the two. For better outcome, all concerned parties need to define their responsibilities and maintain their niche without transgressing same.
Political journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power.
Political journalism is a frequent subject of opinion journalism, as current political events are analyzed, interpreted, and discussed by news media pundits and editorialists.
Subsets are as follows:
• Election journalism or electoral journalism is a subgenre of political journalism which focuses upon and analyzes developments related to an approximate election and political campaigns. This subgenre makes use of statistics, polls and historic data in regards to a candidate’s chance of success for office, or a party’s change in size in a legislature.
• Defense journalism or military journalism is a subgenre which focuses upon the current status of a nation’s military, intelligence and other defense-related faculties. Interest in defense journalism tends to increase during times of violent conflict, with military leaders being the primary actors.
Journalism is the key route in providing ideas, both, negative and positive into a consumers mind. Most of the people rely exactly on the media as it is the mediator in providing news related to politics, as it is discussed here. Hence, journalists have an immense responsibility in transmitting the exactly accurate relevant news to the public.
A very prominent point to emphasize is that media and journalism should be unbiased to the core. The officials responsible, from the top to the bottom should have an idea that they are handling a great big responsibility and should work avoiding any attempts to obtain bribe and should be fearless of the threatening that may come across or any other convincing. Mediators should not be hesitant to speak out the truth.
According to the information I collected upon my researches, a very unfortunate situation in the present is, the politicians often misusing their power. Many incidents are reported that the politicians offer bribes and handle the media units as their own property, almost buying the entire network, if simply said. They make the media units transmit their own supporting programs and news, avoiding any illegal acts performed or hiding the truth. This can be very disastrous as it fools the consumers, breaking their trust on the media and providing fraud/false information.
Hence, it is a major responsibility of the media units to be unbiased and to be fearless, straightforward.

Also known as “Canons of Journalism” it comprises of the set of code of ethics or rules that a journalist should adhere to, by professional journalism associations and individual print, broadcast and online news organizations. Most common elements include truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, timeliness, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, etc.
A very important ethic which should definitely be followed by the journalists is the ethic, “Limitation of Harm.” This includes the withholding of certain details from reports such as the names of minor children, crime victims’ names or information not materially related to particular news report release of which might harm someone’s reputation.

Taste, decency and acceptability also play a major role when it comes to ethics and standards. Audiences have different reactions to depictions of violence, nudity, coarse language, or to people in any other situation that is unacceptable to or stigmatized by the local culture or laws.

When certain distasteful or shocking material is considered important to the story, there are a variety of common methods for mitigating negative audience reaction. Advance warning of explicit or disturbing material may allow listeners or readers to avoid content they would rather not be exposed to. Offensive words may be partially obscured or bleeped. Potentially offensive images may be blurred or narrowly cropped. Descriptions may be substituted for pictures; graphic detail might be omitted. Disturbing content might be moved from a cover to an inside page, or from daytime to late evening, when children are less likely to be watching. The above ethics play a major role while communicating with the world.

Top-notch communication skills are mandatory for journalists. Polished verbal communication skills and perfect written communication skills to demonstrate with excellent grammar and spellings are the key roots in communicating effectively and accurately.

Journalists spend a lot of time researching subjects using a wide range of sources, so knowledge of electronic databases and archiving system is helpful. Practice in using the modern technology such as computer software, cameras and recorders can make the job easier.

Quick thinking skills, adopting to new situations, being comfortable with the people, ability to conduct interviews, being patient when dealing with different personalities, politeness, logic, ability to judge a potential story using critical thinking skills, etc can be considered as a few essential abilities a proper qualified journalist should possess.

But, it is very unfortunate to say that when it comes to online media such as e-newspapers and other news websites in Sri Lanka, we may often come across situations where neither censoring graphics nor abusive/unsuitable language is made. Or simply, where the code of ethics is not followed to the dot.
This may be caused due to the lack of knowledge of the green journalists, new to the field, who have not been through the codes of ethics and other necessary requirements to become a journalist. It is sad to say that most of the so called “Journalists” have no proper picture on how journalism works and the responsibilities of it. Improper handling of journalism can lead to destructive results.
The following can be considered as key factors to improve the skills in journalism, to become a successful journalist:
• Multimedia storytelling skills – Producing slideshows with sound, shooting and editing video and photos, writing for the web.
• Data and statistical skills for storytelling. Collecting, editing, analyzing and interpreting data to produce compelling interactive maps and graphics.
• Audience development skills (formerly known as marketing and circulation) such as managing online communities, interpreting data on audience behavior, crowd sourcing for information, interacting with the audience.
• Basics of programming. How to create compelling pages that attract web audiences.
• The business of media. Journalists can help a news organization generate revenues without compromising their ethics, and today that skill is more important than ever.
• Tight writing. The ultimate aim of journalism should be to tell a story as clearly and concisely as possible. It should be short, sweet and to the point.
With the growing use of social media to report news the consumer perception of real time news is changing – people now expect to receive news instantaneously and expect constant updates of developments. This is significantly influencing the direction and practice of journalism. The availability of these online blogs and social media networks has changed the way that journalists are able to operate and it can be a valuable tool aiding journalists in their newsgathering, audience engagement and it can act as another platform for content.
It is important to note that social media and blogs are not replacing journalism, but they are adding another layer of information to existing news sources. One key way that social media has changed how journalists approach the news is through helping journalists in newsgathering and crowd sourcing. This has helped them to collect more material on news stories and has provided access to a wider range of voices that are able to tell their own stories and opinions on the matter.
Social media also helps journalists to source eyewitnesses quickly, as people are keen to tweet or post about interesting things they have witnessed to tell their friends about what they saw. This can be a significant benefit making it easier for journalists to track down those who might have a first-hand account of an event.
Watchdog journalism informs the public about goings-on in institutions and society, especially in circumstances where a significant portion of the public would demand changes in response. This might involve:
• Fact-checking statements of public officials
• Interviewing public figures and challenging them with problems or concerns
• Beat reporting to gather information from meetings members of the public might not otherwise attend, and to observe “on the ground” in broader society
• Investigative journalism, which involves information-gathering on a single story for a long period of time
Like a literal guard dog that barks when it notices an intruder, a “watchdog” role involves alerting others when a problem is detected. Common subjects are the government decision-making process, illegal activity, immorality, consumer protection issues, and environmental degradation.
Watchdog journalism can be located in a variety of news media, such as radio, television, Internet, and print media where it may be seen as “a unique strength of newspapers”, and additional new media and concepts such as weblogs and citizen journalism. Watchdog journalists also are called “watchmen”, “agents of social control”, or “moral guardians”.
Hence, considering all the knowledge I’ve gathered so far and on what’s mentioned above, wish to conclude that Politics, Media and Journalism are the three roots of communication, which are interrelated and play a major role in the society globally, to obtain an understanding on the country’s situation, its progress, the governing party’s strengths, weaknesses, and hence can be used to determine the future of the country, to establish a successive, fruitful and outstanding motherland if properly handled, unbiased.